Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Sales Management Notes: Introduction to Sales Management

Unit – 1: Introduction to Sales Management
Concept of Sales Management
Sales management refers to the administration of the personal selling component of a company's marketing program. It includes the planning, implementation, and control of sales programs, as well as recruiting, training, motivating, and evaluating members of the sales force. In a small business, these various functions may be performed by the owner or by a specialist called a sales manager. The fundamental role of the sales manager is to develop and administer a selling program that effectively contributes to the organization's goals. The sales manager for a small business would likely decide how many salespeople to employ, how best to select and train them, what sort of compensation and incentives to use to motivate them, what type of presentation they should make, and how the sales function should be structured for maximum contact with customers.
The term Sales Management consists of two words- Sales and Management. Both the terms are used commonly in our day-to-day business. Before defining Sales management, we should understand sales and management separately.
Sales mean selling a product or service in return for money or any other compensation. Basically, it is an exchange of goods and services between two parties, the buyer and the seller. The seller gets the monetary reward in the form of profits by satisfying the needs of the buyer.
Many scholars have defined management. Some of the definitions are as follows:
“Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims”. (Heinz Weihrich & Harold Koontz)
 “Management is an art of getting things done through people”. (Mary Parker Follet)
The emphasis is on the word management now–a-days to do the sales exercise with a professional approach by planning, organising and controlling the prescribed tasks.

Sales Management Notes: Management of Sales Force

Unit – 2: Management of Sales force
Role of a sales manager
Sales manager occupies middle level position and is influenced by the expectations from both the levels externally and internally. They need to perform other functions of marketing too along with sales management functions which includes planning, directing, controlling, organizing, recruiting, selecting, training and motivating, allocating resources and territories, routing and scheduling etc.
a)      Forecasts sales in the role of a sales forecaster.
b)      Devices strategies as a strategic planner.
c)       Observes the behavior of prospective and existing customers in order to plan future strategies as an observer of buying behavior.
d)      He is a role model for the sales personnel as a super sales person Role of a sales manager.
e)      Analyses the cost and profit involved in segments as a cost and profit analyst Plays the role of communicator internally and externally Role of a sales manager.
Functions of a sales manager:
a)      Hiring: right people and giving careful job description
b)      Training: Formal / Informal, techniques, simple issues to handling objections
c)       Exhibit: Training results – No longer an ROI
d)      Coaching: observing, correcting, make sales person identify the problem ending up with a solution, follow up and remedial measures
e)      Motivating: Setting targets and tracking the results: new accounts, amount to be generated, ratio of sales per customer etc. .
f)       Additional targets for the prospecting efforts.
g)      Setting realistic and achievable targets and publicizing on achievement of targets

Sales Management Notes: Personal Selling

Unit – 3: Personal Selling
Personal selling is a face-to-face selling technique by which a salesperson uses his or her interpersonal skills to persuade a customer in buying a particular product. The salesperson tries to highlight various features of the product to convince the customer that it will only add value. However, getting a customer to buy a product is not the motive behind personal selling every time. Often companies try to follow this approach with customers to make them aware of a new product.
Personal selling (or salesmanship) is the most traditional method, devised by manufactures, for promotion of the sales of their products. Prior to the development of the advertising technique, personal selling used to be the only method used by manufacturers for promotion of sales.
According to Philip Kotler, “"Personal Selling is the face to face interaction with one or more perspective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions, and procuring orders"
According to Duncan, “Salesmanship is the art of presenting an offering so that the prospect appreciates the need for it and a mutually satisfactory sale follows.”
W. Major Scott, “It is the part of a salesman’s’ business to create demand by demonstrating that the need does exist, although before his visit there was no consciousness of that need.”

Nature of Personal Selling
Personal selling plays a significant role in our economy and in the organization’s marketing program. Personal selling plays a strategic role in the total sales-force management. Personal selling plays an effective role in the following situations:
1.       When the value of the product is not readily apparent to the prospective customers.
2.       When the product is quite technical, has high unit cost and requires demonstration to explain its utility.

Sales Management Notes: Sales Promotion and Distribution Channel

Unit – 4: Sales Promotion and Distribution channel
Introduction to sales promotion
Sales promotion is one of the most loosely used terms in the marketing vocabulary. We define sales promotion as demand. Stimulating devices designed to supplement advertising and facilitate personal selling. In other words, sales promotion signifies all those activities that supplement, co-ordinate and make the efforts of personal selling and advertising more effective. It is non recurrent in nature which means it can’t be used continuously.
Concept of Sales Promotion: Sales promotion consists of diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short-term designed to stimulate quicker and / or greater purchase of a particular product by consumers or the trade. Where as advertising offers a reason to buy, sales promotion offers an incentive to buy. Sales promotion includes tools for consumer promotion (for example samples, coupons, prizes, cash refund, warranties, demonstrations, contest); trade promotion (for example buying allowances, free goods, merchandise allowances, co-operative advertising, advertising and display allowances, dealer sales contests); and sales-force promotion (for example bonuses, contests, sales rallies).
Sales promotion efforts are directed at final consumers and designed to motivate, persuade and remind them of the goods and receives that are offered. Sales persons adopt several techniques for sales promotion. Creative sales promotion can be very effective. It is the marketing manager’s responsibility to specify promotion objectives and policies.
Definitions of Sales Promotion
According to American Marketing Association “ Those marketing activities other than personal selling advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness such as display shows and exhibitions, demonstrations and various non-recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine.”

Dibrugarh University Question Papers: Sales Management (Nov' 2016)

2016 (November)
Course: 503
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions
(Sales Management)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 24
Time: 3 hours

1. Answer the following as directed:
a)      Sales management is seller/buyer oriented.                        1 (Choose the correct one)
b)      Name the non-paid form of communication of information about the products.               1
c)       Personal selling is an impersonal form of communication.     1(Write True or False)
d)      Sales organization and marketing organization are synonymous.       1         (Write True or False)
e)      Name the function involved in physical movement of goods from one place to another.    1
f)       Give two merits of sales promotion.                                                               2
g)      Write the full form of FMCG.

2. Write short notes on any four of the following:                                             4x4=16

Saturday, October 07, 2017

Branch Accounting Solved Practical Problems of Jain and Narang's Book - Part A

In the books of India Traders
Kolkata A/c
To Goods sent to branch
To Goods in transit

To Bank A/c
Office Expenses
Petty Cash

To General P/L A/c


By Remittance
Cash Sales
Cash received from debtors

By balance c/d
Petty Cash
Goods in transit





Working Note:
Debtors A/c

Thursday, October 05, 2017

Dibrugarh University Question Papers (B.A): Entrepreneurship Development (Nov' 2013)

Course: 501
(Fundamentals of Entrepreneurship)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. Write True or False: 1x8=8
  1. The term ‘entrepreneur’ was appeared first in French language.
  2. An entrepreneur is an innovator.
  3. Entrepreneurs have no relation with entrepreneurship.

Dibrugarh University Question Papers (B.A): Mathematics (Nov' 2013)

Course: 501
(A) Analysis – II, (B) Mechanics
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions
(A) Analysis – II (Complex Analysis)
(Marks: 35)

1. (a) Define an analytic function. 1

Dibrugarh University Question Papers (B.A): History (Nov' 2013)

Course: 501
[History of India (1526-1947)]
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. (a) Answer the following questions in one word or in one sentence: 1x8=8
  1. Name the king with whom Babur fought the Battle of Khanua, 1527.
  2. Who was the author of Akbar-Namah?

Dibrugarh University Question Papers (B.A): Philosophy (Nov' 2013)

Course: 501
[Logic (Indian and Western)]
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. Find out the correct answer: 1x8=8
  1. There are two/three kinds of inference (Anumana) on the basis of knowledge of Vyapti.
  2. There are two/three/five propositions in Pararthanumana.

Dibrugarh University Question Papers (B.A): Political Science (Nov' 2013)

Course: 501
(Administration of Rural Development in India)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. Answer the following questions: 1x8=8
  1. Write the full form of ‘DRDA’.
  2. In which year Balwanta Rai Mehta Committee was formed?

Dibrugarh University Question Papers (B.A): Economics (Nov' 2013)

Course: 501
(Elementary Statistics for Economics)
Full Marks: 80
Pass Marks: 32
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions

1. Choose the correct option/Answer the following: 1x8=8
  1. Direct personal investigation is related to

Tuesday, October 03, 2017

AHSEC/CBSE - Class 11 Notes (Subject - Physics): Work, Energy and Power

Chap – 6
Work energy and power
D:\Logo\New Physics Final\Untitled-13 copy.jpg

Work is said to be done if on application of force on a body, the body is displaced in the direction of force. Mathematically work is the product of force and displacement of a body provided, both force and displacement of the same direction.

Work done by a constant force: Let a force F applied on a body such that the direction of force makes an anglewith displacement S, the force can be resolved into two componentsalongandperpendicular toand shown in figure below.


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