Thursday, January 05, 2012

Motivation - Concept

                The word motivation is derived from ‘motive', which means an active form of a desire, craving or need that must be satisfied. Motivation is the key to organizational effectiveness. The manager in general has to get the work done through others. These 'others' are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organizational objectives.
                According to George R. Terry, "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action."
                According to Berelson and Steiner “A motive is an inner state that energizes activates, or moves and directs or channels behavior goals".
                According to Lills "It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon one's will and promoting or driving it to action".
                According to Encyclopedia of Management  "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness."
Nature of Motivation
                Motivation is a psychological phenomenon which generates within an individual. A person feels the lack of certain needs, to satisfy which he feels working more. The need satisfying ego motivates a person to do better than he normally does. From definitions given earlier the following inferences can be derived:
a)      Motivation is an inner psychological force, which activates and compels the person to behave in a particular manner.
b)      The motivation process is influenced by personality traits, learning abilities, perception and competence of an individual.
c)       A highly motivated employee works more efficiently and his level of production tends to be higher than others.
d)      Motivation originates from the-needs and wants of an individual. It is a tension of lacking something in his mind, which forces him to work more efficiently.
e)      Motivation is also a process of stimulating and channelizing the energy of an individual for achieving set goals.
f)       Motivation also plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance. Highly motivated employees get higher satisfaction, which may lead to higher efficiency.
g)      Motivating force an^ its degree, may differ from individual to individual depending on his personality, needs, competence and other factors.
h)      The process of Motivation helps the manager in analyzing and understanding human behavior and finding but how an individual can be inspired to produce desirable working behavior.
i)        Motivation may be positive as well as negative. Positive motivation includes incentives, rewards and other benefits while negative motivation implies some punishment, fear, use of force etc.
j)        The motivation procedure contributes to and boosts up the morale of the employees. A high degree of motivation may lead to high morale.

Importance of Motivation
a)      High Performance: - Motivated employee’s writ put maximum efforts for achieving organizational goals. The untapped reservoirs of physical and mental abilities are taped to the maximum. Better performance will also result in higher productivity. The cost of production can also be brought down if productivity is raised.
b)      Low employee Turnover and Absenteeism: -When the employees are not satisfied with their job then they will leave it whenever they get an alternative offer. The dissatisfaction among employees also increases absenteeism. The employment training of new employees costs dearly to the organization.
c)       Better Organizational Images: -Those enterprises which offer better monetary and non-monetary facilities to their employees have a better image among them. Such concerns are successful in attracting better qualified and experienced persons. Since there is a better man-power to development programme, the employees will like to join such organizations. Motivational efforts will simplify personnel functions also.
d)      Better Industrial Relations: -A good motivational system will create job satisfaction among employees. The employment will offer them better service conditions and various other incentives. There will be an atmosphere of confidence among employers and employees. There will be no reason for conflict and cordial relations among both sides will create a healthy atmosphere. So motivation among employees will lead to better industrial relations.
e)      Acceptability to Change: -The changing social an industrial situations will require changes and improvements in the working of enterprises. There will be a need to introduce new and better methods of work from time to time. Generally employees resist changes for fear of an adverse effect on their employment.