Saturday, August 11, 2012

Business Communication - Introduction

The term communication is derived from a Latin word „communis‟ which means common. This means establishing a common ground. Now whatever is common is shared by all. But what is that which is shared by all in communication? It is fact, ideas, understanding, opinions, information etc.
In the words of Newman, Summer & Warren, “communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions by two or more persons.”
According to Keith Davis, Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another.”
Communication should not be interpreted as merely sending or receiving messages. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. It is a two way process and is complete only when there is some response from the receiver of information.

Nature or Characteristics of communication
An analysis of various definitions of communication revel the nature or characteristics of communication which are as follows:-
1.       Communication involves at least two persons: Communication involves at least two persons the sender and the receiver. The sender sends the messages and is known as the communicator. The receiver receives the message and is known as communicate.
2.       Communication is a two way process: Communication is essentially a two way process. It does not merely means sending and receiving messages. It is not complete unless and until the message has been understood by the receiver in the same sense.
3.       Purpose of communication: This basic purpose of communication is to create an understanding. The receiver should understand the message sent and should response accordingly.
4.       Form of communication: Communication may take several form e.g. order, instruction, report, queries etc. it may be verbal or written. It may be formal or informal.
5.       Scope of communication: communication pervades all human relationship. It is essential in all type of organizational and at all levels of management.
6.       Communication is a dynamic process: Communication is influenced by the mood and thinking of the sender and receiver. The way a message is accepted depends upon the fact that which of the fine sensory organs of the receiver is active at that time.
7.       Communication is much more than words: Communication is not merely sending or receiving facts, expressed in words. It also involves ideas and emotions. A lot of communication is done through signs, symbols and gestures.
8.       Communication is a goal oriented process: Communication is a goal oriented and effective only when there is congruence of goals of sender and receiver.
9.       Communication is conversational: Communication sets up a link between facts, ideas and thus helps the communicator and communicates to progress logically.
10.   Communication is an interdisciplinary science: Communication to be effective derives knowledge from several sciences like anthropology (study of body language), sociology (study of human bahaviour), psychology (study of attitude) etc.

Significance of Business communication
Communication is the life blood of business. It is an all pervasive function of management. Today the organizational structure is designed on the basis of specialization and division of labour. Large number of people work together who are functionally related to each other. Thus, co ordination is must amongst the workmen. Co-ordination can be achieved only when there is mutual trust and understanding between them. This understanding is created by effective communication. Thus communication is an essential ingredient for effective management. Further the role of communication may be summed up as:-
1.       The objectives, plans and policies of the organization are cleared to the workers through communication.
2.       It provides unity of direction to various activities of the enterprise.
3.       It helps in controlling and coordinating the various activities of the organization.
4.       It helps in motivating the workers of an organization.
5.       It helps the managers to develop their managerial skill.

Need of communication
According to Sir John Harvey-Jones, “Communication is the single most essential skill. Effective   communication is the need of the day.” In recent times communication has become all more essential due to the following reasons:-
1.       Growth in the size of the business organization: An efficient system of communication is required because the business organizations are growing tremendously. Thousands of people work in the organization. Organizations have factories or offices in different parts of the country or even world.
2.       Advance technology: Day by day rapid changes are taking place in science and technology leading to obsolescence of old technology. Thus in order to upgrade or modernize technology proper communication between the superior and subordinate in an organization is a must.
3.       Tough competition in the market: Globalization and liberalization have resulted in cut throat competition. Thus to survive such competition, persuasive communication in form of advertisement, publicity, personal contacts are essential.
4.       Growing specialization: Division of work paved way for specialists to work in different department’s sound communication is thus essential for ensuring mutual cooperation and understanding between different departments.
5.       Trade union movement: trade union movement is on its growth. Management now has to consult trade unions on various matters. A strong and meaningful relation between management and trade union is possible only by effective communication.
6.       Human relation: Employee’s participation in management helps to develop among them a sense of loyalty and belongingness towards the organization. Thus effective communication between management and employee is necessary to develop mutual trust and confidence.
7.       Public relations: Public relations help an organization to improve its image in society as the organization has a social responsibility especially towards the customers. 


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