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Tuesday, December 24, 2013

UGC - NET: Commerce (08)

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. This theory, popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs as given in the diagram:


Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance,
starting from the bottom of the hierarchy:
a)      Physiological needs: Physiological needs represent the basic issues of survival such as food, sex, water and air. In organizational settings, most physiological needs are satisfied by adequate wages and by the work environment itself.
b)      Security or safety needs: Security needs are satisfied for people in the work place by job continuity, a grievance resolving system and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package.
c)       Social needs: Belonging or social needs are related to the, social aspect of human life. They include the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by one's peers.
d)      Esteem needs: Esteem needs actually comprise of two different sets of needs:
i.         The need for a positive self-image and self-respect.
ii.       The need for recognition and respect from others.
Organizations can help address esteem needs by providing a variety of external symbols of accomplishment such as job titles and spacious offices. At a more fundamental level, organizations can also help satisfy esteem needs by providing employees with challenging job assignments that can induce a sense of accomplishment.
e)      Self-actualization needs: At the top of the hierarchy are those needs, which Maslow defines the self-actualization needs. These needs involve realizing one's potential for continued: growth and individual development. Since these needs are highly individualized and personal, self-actualization needs are perhaps the most difficult for managers to address. Therefore, an employee should try to meet these needs on his own end.
However, an organization can help his employee by creating a climate for fulfillment of self-actualization needs. For instance, an organization can help in fulfillment of these needs by encouraging employee’s participation in decision-making process.
Critical Analysis of Maslow’s Theory
A number of research studies have been undertaken to see the validity of hierarchy of needs. Lawler and Suttle collected data on 187 Managers in two different organizations for a period of six months to one year. No evidence was found to support Maslow's theory. They found there were two levels of needs-biological and other needs- and that other needs would emerge only when biological needs were reasonably satisfied. A survey conducted in India of 200 factory worker revealed that they give top priority to job security, earnings and personal benefits-all lower other needs.
Herzberg theory of Motivation
Another popular need-based approach to motivation is the dual-structure approach developed by Frederick Herzberg. This is also known as Two-factor Theory. Herzberg developed this approach after interviewing 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburg. He asked them to recall such occasions when they had been dissatisfied and less motivated. He found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction. For instance, an individual who identified 'low pay' as causing dissatisfaction did not necessarily mention 'high pay' as a cause of satisfaction. Instead, several other factors, such as recognition or accomplishment, were cited as causing satisfaction.
Herzberg identified two sets of factors responsible for causing either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The factors influencing satisfaction are called motivation factors or motivators, which are related specifically to the job itself and the factors causing dissatisfaction, are called hygiene factors, which are related to the work environment in which the job is performed.
Motivators
a)      Achievement
b)      Recognition
c)       Advancement
d)      The work itself
e)      The possibility of personal growth
f)       Responsibility       
Hygiene or Maintenance Factors
a)      Company policies
b)      Technical supervision
c)       Interpersonal relations with supervisor
d)      Interpersonal relations with peers
e)      Interpersonal relations with subordinates
f)       Salary
g)      Job security
h)      Personal life
i)        Work conditions
j)        Status
Difference between Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory and Herzberg’s motivation Hygiene Theory
1.       Basis of Theory:  Maslow's theory is based on the hierarchy of human needs. Hertzberg refers to hygiene factors and motivating factors in his theory. Hygiene factors are dissatisfies while motivating factors motivate subordinates. Hierarchical arrangement of needs is not given.
2.       Nature of Theory: Maslow's theory is rather simple and descriptive. The theory is based long experience about human needs. Hertzberg's theory is more prescriptive. It suggests the motivating factors which can be used effectively.
3.       Applicability of Theory: Maslow's theory is most popular and widely cited theory of motivation and has wide applicability. It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where money is still a big motivating factor.                         Herzberg's theory is an extension of Maslow's theory of motivation. Its applicability is narrow. It is applicable to rich and developed countries where money is less important motivating factor.
4.       Descriptive or Prescriptive: Maslow's theory or model is descriptive in nature. Herzberg's theory or model is prescriptive in nature.