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Thursday, January 23, 2014

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 14 (2015 - 16)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ECO - 14
Course Title: Accountancy - II
Assignment Code: ECO – 14/TMA/2015-16
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Attempt all the questions.
1. (a) Give specimen of company’s balance sheet as per part I of schedule VI of Indian Companies Act, 1956.    (10×2)
Ans: Format of Company’s balance sheet:
Proforma of Balance Sheet
Name of the Company …………………………………….
Balance Sheet as at……………………………………..

Sunday, January 19, 2014

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 11

Answer of Q.N.1.(a).

Previous Year: [Sec. 3]
As the word ‘Previous’ means ‘coming before’ , hence it can be simply said that the Previous Year is the Financial Year preceding the Assessment Year  e.g. for Assessment Year 2013-2014 the  Previous Year should be the Financial Year ending 31st March 2013. The term previous year is very important because it is the earned during the previous year is to be assessed to tax in the assessment year. The simple rule is that the income of a previous year is taxed in its relevant assessment year. At present the previous Year 2012-2013 (1-4-2012 to 31-3-2013) is going on.  For a new business started during during financial year, the previous year will be the financial year in which the business is started.

Saturday, January 18, 2014

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 10 (2015 - 16)

ECO – 10: ELEMENTS OF COSTING
For July 2015 and January 2016 admission cycle
School of Management Studies
India Gandhi National Open University
Maiden Geri, New Delhi -110068
Elective Course in Commerce
ECO – 10: Elements of Costing
ASSIGNMENT- 2015-16
Dear Students,
As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment in this Course.
Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-end examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignment as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.
This assignment is valid for two admission cycles (July 2015 and January 2016). The validity is given below:
1. Those who are enrolled in July 2015, it is valid up to June 2016.
2. Those who are enrolled in January 2016, it is valid up to December 2016.
You have to submit the assignment of all the courses to The Coordinator of your Study Centre. For appearing in June Term-End Examination, you must submit assignment to the Coordinator of your study centre latest by 15th March. Similarly for appearing in December Term-End Examination, you must submit assignments to the Coordinator of your study centre latest by 15th September.

 Answer of Q.N.1.
Cost Accounting: It is the method of accounting for cost. The process of recording and accounting for all the elements of cost is called cost accounting.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS

Qualification and Disqualification of an Auditor

According to Section 226(1) and 226(2) of the Companies Act, the prescribed qualifications of an auditor are as follows:
a.Qualification [sec226 (1)]:
a. The auditor of a co. may be either, an individual or a firm

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS

"ACCOUNTING IS A NECESSITY WHILE AUDITING IS A LUXURY"

Accounting is basically a service function that embraces the formal design, installation, and operation of a system of accounts in order that business transactions maybe properly recorded and reported. It is usually called the language of business, and an "aid to management".  It is therefore clear that Accounting is a NECESSITY in all kinds of business especially big companies, whether a single owner or a corporation. Even a family, father, mother and older children needs accounting to check their incomes and expenses. 

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS

Modes of discharge of a contract:
A Contract is said to be discharged when the rights and obligations created by it come to an end. A contract may be discharged in the following modes:-
1.       Discharge by performance: Discharge by performance takes place when the parties to a contract fulfill their obligations arising under the contract within the time and in the manner prescribed. Performance may be actual performance or attempted performance.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 13 (2014 - 15)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ECO - 13
Course Title: Business Environment
Assignment Code: ECO – 13/TMA/2014-15
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100
Attempt all the questions.
1. What is meant by mixed economy? Why did India adopt mixed economy after achieving independence? (5+15)
Ans: Mixed Economy: There was no reference to the mixed economic system in Economic literature in the past. Economists were mainly familiar and advocated the Laissez faire or free enterprise system, as several countries could develop fast following the free enterprise system, in which there was no or little government intervention. The entire economic system operated with the price mechanism at its center point. The producers produced what the consumers wanted and this provided very little scope for the government to intervene in the system. The Classical economists and their ardent supporters believed that the invisible hand will direct the economy and with private initiative and enterprise, every country should be able to record a faster growth as proved in the case of UK, USA, Europe, Australia, and other countries.
In a mixed economy, one will find the existence of both the private and public sectors. In such a system, the government will undertake the responsibility to build and develop certain sector activities and leave the other activities for the private initiative. In India, the government announced the adoption of the mixed economy system through its 1948 Industrial Policy Resolution. The government clearly earmarked the industries to be completely under the state control, the industries which are too owned and controlled by the state as well as the private sector and industries which are completely left for the private sector. In this way the Resolution provided for the simultaneous existence of both private and public sectors.

Friday, January 17, 2014

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: PCO - 01 (2012 - 2013)


Answer of Q.N.1.
Accounting Equation:
The accounting equation is the fundamental equation upon which all double entry accounting is based. Whatever business possesses in the form of assets is financed by proprietor or by outsiders. This equation expresses the equality of assets on one side and the claims of outsiders (liabilities) and owners or proprietors on the other side. Accounting equation signifies that the assets of a business are always equal to the total of liabilities and capital. This relationship is expressed as under:

Wednesday, January 15, 2014

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 02 (2012 - 2013)


Answer of Q.N.1(a).
Accounting
Accounting is the analysis and interpretation of book-keeping records. It includes not only maintains of accounting records but also the preparation of financial and economic information. Which involves the measurement of transaction and other events pertaining to a business. “Accounting system is a measure of collecting summarizing, analyzing and reporting in monetary terms the information of the business”
According to the American institute of certified public accounts,”It is The arts of recordings, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money transaction and events which in parts, at least of a financial charter and interpreting the result thereof”.

Saturday, January 11, 2014

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: IBO - 06

Master of Commerce  (M.Com)
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (ASSIGNMENTS 2013-14)
Course Code : IBO – 06
Course Title : International Business Finance
Assignment Code : IBO – 06/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Dear Students,

As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment for each course.  We are sending the assignments of all the six courses together in this booklet.  Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-End Examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignments as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: IBO - 05

Master of Commerce  (M.Com)
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (ASSIGNMENTS 2013-14)
Course Code : IBO - 05
Course Title : International Marketing Logistics
Assignment Code : IBO-05/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Dear Students,

As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment for each course.  We are sending the assignments of all the six courses together in this booklet.  Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-End Examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignments as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: IBO - 04

Master of Commerce  (M.Com)
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (ASSIGNMENTS 2013-14)
Course Code : IBO – 04
Course Title : Export Import Procedures and Documentation
Assignment Code : IBO – 04/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Dear Students,

As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment for each course.  We are sending the assignments of all the six courses together in this booklet.  Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-End Examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignments as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: IBO - 03

Master of Commerce  (M.Com)
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (ASSIGNMENTS 2013-14)
Course Code : IBO – 03
Course Title : India’s Foreign Trade
Assignment Code : IBO – 03/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Dear Students,

As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment for each course.  We are sending the assignments of all the six courses together in this booklet.  Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-End Examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignments as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.

Friday, January 10, 2014

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: IBO - 02

Master of Commerce  (M.Com)
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (ASSIGNMENTS 2013-14)
Course Code : IBO – 02
Course Title : International Marketing Management
Assignment Code : IBO – 02/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Dear Students,

As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment for each course.  We are sending the assignments of all the six courses together in this booklet.  Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-End Examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignments as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: IBO - 01

Master of Commerce  (M.Com)
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (ASSIGNMENTS 2013-14)
Course Code : IBO – 01
Course Title : International Business Environment
Assignment Code : IBO – 01/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Dear Students,

As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment for each course.  We are sending the assignments of all the six courses together in this booklet.  Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-End Examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignments as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 13 (2015 - 2016)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ECO - 13
Course Title: Business Environment
Assignment Code: ECO – 13/TMA/2015-16
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Attempt all the questions.
1. What is meant by business environment? Describe briefly various components of non-economic business environment.                                    (5+15)
Ans: Business is any activity undertaken for the purpose of producing or selling a particular commodity or service and earns a profit. The business has several dimensions such as purchasing the inputs, converting the inputs into the output, selling that output at a profitable price. Every dimension of a business depends upon several factors. Hence a business is influenced by several factors, all them put together are described as Business Environment. A business can grow and prosper in a particular environment just as a plant can grow in a particular soil, climate, water supply etc.  Hence the entrepreneur has to pay attention to the environment in which he has to conduct his business activities. If he is able to adapt his business to the environment effectively and efficiently the business can make higher profits. This makes the study of business environment important.
According to Keith Davis, ”Business environment is the aggregate of all conditions, events and influences that surrounds and affect the business.”
According to wheeler, ”Business environment is the total of all things external to business firms and industries which affect their organisation and operations.

NON-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 12 (2015 - 16)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ECO - 12
Course Title : Elements of Auditing
Assignment Code : ECO – 12/TMA/2015-16
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Attempt all the questions.

1. Define Auditing. Explain its objectives and advantages.                                           (20)
Ans: Meaning of Auditing: The word audit is derived from the Latin word “AUDIRE” which means to hear. Initially auditor was a person appointed by the owners to check account whenever the suspected fraud, he was to hear explanation given by the person responsible for financial transactions. Emergence of joint stock companies changed the approach of auditing as ownership was pestered from management. The emphasis now is clearly on the verification of accounting date with a view on the reliability of accounting statement.
In the words of Montgomery, “Auditing is a systematic examination of the books and records of a business or other organization, in order to ascertain or verify and report upon the facts regarding its financial operation and the result thereof”. 
In the words A.W. Hanson, “An audit is an examination of such records to establish their reliability and the reliability of statement drawn from them”. 
From the above definitions it is clear that the auditor’s basic duty is to examine the accounts and its arithmetical accuracy. He must ensure than the financial statements depicts true and fair view of the state of affairs of the business. Since, Auditing is a full and critical examination of the books of accounts to find out their accuracy.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 06

Elective Course in Commerce
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT (ASSIGNMENT- 2013-14)
Course Code : ECO - 06
Course Title : Economic Theory
Assignment Code : ECO – 06/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Dear Students,

As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment in this Course. Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-end examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignment as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSGINMENTS: ECO - 05 (2014 - 15) - DEMO

Course Code: ECO - 05
Course Title: Mercantile Law
Assignment Code: ECO – 05/TMA/2014-15
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Attempt all the questions.
Answer of Q.N.1 (a).
(i) Distinguish between Void and Voidable Contracts
Void Contract: An agreement which was enforceable at the time of formation but later on due to certain event it lost the enforceability, such agreement is known as void contract. For example, on 1st January ‘A’ agrees with ‘B’ to sell his horse for Rs. 100 on 15th of January. The horse dies on 10th January. Now the performance of contract on 15th January becomes impossible, hence this contract is void. 
Voidable Contract: An agreement which is enforceable at the option of one of the parties thereto but not at the option of the other, is a voidable contract. A Voidable Contract is defective contract and is enforceable at the instance of the injured party by the defect. Agreements obtained by fraud or coercion are Voidable Contracts. For Example, ‘A’ induces ‘B’ by giving false description to purchase certain goods. ‘B’ on discovering misrepresentation can repudiate the contract or can elect to carry on the contract.

Difference between Void and Voidable Contract:

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 03 (2015 - 2016)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ECO-03
Course Title: Management Theory
Assignment Code: ECO-03/TMA/2015-16
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100
Attempt all questions.
1. “Management Principles focus on one of the best way of doing things and are prescriptive”. Do you agree? Give reasons and explain various principles of management.                                                               (6+14)
Ans. Principles of Management: The word principles mean a fundamental truth that can establish relationship between cause and effect and also helps in thinking out a plan for an action. The principles help in predicting the results expected to follow through set actions undertaken and thus provide basis for a scientific action plan. Meaning of management principles in simple word is that they form the basis of all managerial actions through which desired goals needs to be achieved. By nature these principles are flexible and are more or less based on experiences and can adopt to changing situations and problems and thus became the pillars of management as scientific process.
Need for Management Principles: Management principles are needed for successful practice of managerial process. They help the managers to use the basic principles for decision making. They help the art of management by suggesting as to how the things should be done to obtain the optimum benefits. These principles simplify management practice by bringing out the core aspects of management activities for the good of the organization. The management principle of “science, not rule of the thumb” suggests that every task should be done with minimum effort and energy and additional work can be done with the saved energy. By saving time, efforts and energy activities can be made economical and enhance the productivity of the resources. From the above explanation we can say that management principles focuses on the best way of doing things and it is prescriptive in nature.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 01

Elective Course in Commerce
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT  (ASSIGNMENT- 2013-14)
Course Code : ECO - 01
Course Title : Business Organisation
Assignment Code : ECO – 01/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Dear Students,

As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment in this Course. Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-end examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignment as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: MCO - 07

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code : MCO – 07
Course Title : Financial Management
Assignment Code : MCO - 07 /TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Attempt all the questions

1.    (a) What is Capital Budgeting? Explain in brief the various techniques of appraisal of an investment project.

(b) Consider the project with the following cash flows. Compute the net present  value of the project of the project. The rate of discount is 20%?
Rs. in Lakhs Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
Cash flows
(-)150
50
60
55
60
75

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 09 (2015 - 16)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ECO - 09
Course Title: Money, Banking and Financial Institutions
Assignment Code: ECO – 09/TMA/2015-16
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100
Attempt all the questions.
1. Why is money demanded? How is the Keynesian approach different from the classical approach in this regard? (20)
2. Explain the establishment, structure and functions of the State Bank of India.                (20)
3. What is meant by money market? Discuss the significance of money market in a modern economy.    (20)
4. Describe the working of the IMF. How does it help member countries in dealing with their temporary balance of payments problems?                     (20)
5. Write short notes on the following:                                    (4×5)
(a) General Leading Principal of World Bank
(b) Regional Rural Banks
(c) Economic Significance of Banking
(d) Branch Banking                                         

Answer of Question No.1.
Demand for Money: Classical view of demand for money contributes that money can not satisfy the holder directly. It is demanded for its purchasing power or its use as medium of buying goods and services which satisfy the holder of money. It is therefore obvious that the demand for money arises from the demand for goods and services to meet the society's requirements. Hence demand for money may be termed as 'derived demand'. The demand for money in a country depend on the volume of transactions taken place in the country; more specially, depends upon the supply of goods and services available in the market. The larger the amount of tradable goods and services in the economy, large is the volume of demand for money.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS: ECO - 08 (2015 - 16)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ECO - 08
Course Title: Company Law
Assignment Code: ECO – 08/TMA/2015-16
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100
Attempt all the questions
1. What do you mean by illegal association? What are its exceptions? Explain the consequences of an illegal association?                                                 (4+6+10)
Ans: Illegal Association: Combination of persons for achievement of common objects is called an ‘association’. In order to protect public from the mischief of large trading associations, whose membership may go on constantly changing, section 11 provides for their compulsory registration.
According to section 11 every association consisting of more than 10 persons in banking business and 20 in the case of any other business must either be registered as a company under the Companies Act or be formed according to the provisions of some other Indian Law. An association not so registered is an illegal association having no legal existence. An illegal association is an association of more than 20 persons (10 in case of banking business) which carries a business without being registered under any law.
An association will be termed as an illegal association, when:
(i) The association consists of more than 20 members (10 in case of banking business);
(ii) The association is formed for carrying on a business with the objective of earning of profits; and

Wednesday, January 01, 2014

UGC - NET: Answer Key Dec' 2013 Exam (Commerce Paper III)

UGC – NET: ANSWER KEY DEC’2013 EXAM
COMMERCE: PAPER III

Q.1. (D) (i),(ii),(iv) and (vi)

Q.2. (C) Medical Negligence

Q.3. (A) (i), (ii) and (iii)

Q.4. (D) (ii), (iii),(iv) and (v)          ?????????????????