Friday, May 09, 2014

Various Methods of Wage Payment

Methods of Wages Payment
The methods of remuneration can be classified into:
a)      Time Rate System
b)      Pieced Rate System
c)       Incentive Schemes
a)      Time Rate System: In this system, a worker is paid on the basis of attendance for the day or according to the hours of the day, regardless of the output. This system is also known as time work, day work, day age rate or day rate. The wage rate of the day worker may be fixed on hourly, daily, weekly, fortnightly, or monthly basis depending on the practice followed in the concern. There are two variants of this system, each differing only in so far as the fixation of the time rate is concerned. They are:
1.       Measured Day work or Graduated Time Rate
2.       Differential Time Rate
Graduated Time Rate:   Under this method wages are paid at time rates which vary according to
a.       Merit-rating of the workers, or
b.      Changes in the cost of living index.
It the cost of living goes up, the wages also go up proportionately, and vice versa. Thus the works get the real wages. Similarly, the workers having higher merit rating get higher wages, and the workers with lower rating get lower wages.

Differential Time Rate: Workers are paid rate accounting to their individual efficiency. They are paid normal rate upto a certain percentage of efficiency and the rate increases in steps for efficiency slabs beyond the standard. As the efficiency is measured in terms of output, this method does not fall strictly under the area of time rate system.
b)      Piece Rate System: The payment of wages under this system is based upon the out turn of the worker. The rate is fixed per piece of work and the worker is paid according to the pieces of work completed or the volume of work done by him, irrespective of the time taken by him in completing that work. A workman is free to earn as much as his ability, energy, or skill would allow to him to produce. The piece rate System can be classified into:
a.       Straight Piece Rate.
b.      Differential Piece Rate.
Straight Piece Rates: It is a simple method of making payment at a fixed rate per unit for the units manufactured. Earnings = Number of units X Rate per unit.
Differential Piece Rates: Under this system, efficient workers are paid wages at a lower rate. A definite standard of efficiency is set for each job and for efficiency below or above the standard different piece rates are paid according to different levels of efficiency. The following two methods of wage payment are studied under this system:
a.       Taylor Differential Piece-rate Method, and
b.      Merrick Differential Piece rate Method
Taylor Differential Piece-Rate: F.W. Taylor thought to improve the efficiency of workers by suggesting two rates of payment of wages: A higher rate to the workers who product equal to or more than the standard fixed for production during the day (120%), and a lower rate to the workers who do not achieve the standard (80%).
Merrick Differential Piece-rate: In the Taylor Method, the effect on the wages is quite sharp in the marginal cases. To remove this defect Merrick suggested three piece rates for a job as follows:
Percentage of Standard Output                Payment under Merrick Method
Upto 83%                                                            Normal piece rate
Above 83% and upto 100%                          110% of normal piece rate
Above 100%                                                       120% of normal piece rate
c)       Incentive Schemes: Under this heading, we study the following methods:
a.       Halsey Premium Scheme;
b.      Rowan Premium Scheme;
The Halsey premium plan: This system is known as fifty fifty plan. It was introduced by F.A. Halsey, an American engineer. Under this method a standard time is fixed for the performance of each job; worker is paid for actual time taken at an hourly rate plus 50% of time saved as bonus. Total wages under this scheme is calculated with the help of the following formula:
Earnings = Time taken x Rate per hour + 50% (Time saved x Rate per hour)
Features of Halsey Premium Scheme: Under this plan,
a)      Time rate is guaranteed and the worker gets the guaranteed irrespective of whether he completes the job within the time also takes more time to do it.
b)      Standard time and standard work are fixed for the job or operation in advance;
c)       The workers producing more than the standard, or the workers completing the work in less than the standard time fixed, get bonus in addition to the ordinary time wage.
d)      The bonus or the premium, by whatever name called, is 30 to 70 percent of the wages of time saved, the usual percentage being 50%,
e)      Workers who fail to reach the prescribed standard get the time wages.
f)       Labour cost per unit of output decreases. The employer also shares the benefit of efficiency which induced him to improve the method and equipment.
The advantages and disadvantages of this premium plan are mentioned below:
Advantages
(i) The plan is simple to understand and easy to operate.
(ii) It creates a feeling of security among workers as the plan assures a minimum hourly rate or guaranteed wage.
(iii) The efficient workers are rewarded by way of payment of bonus, whereas the inefficient workers are not penalised.
(iv) Earnings of workers increase and productivity increases since the workers are motivated.
(v) The employers also gain since direct labour cost and overheads cost per unit decline.
Disadvantages
(i) The workers do not get the full benefit of their efforts since the employee gets a share of the wages of the time saved.
(ii) More wastage of raw materials may result due to over-speeding.
(iii) The quality of work may decline as the workers want to rush through the work.
Rowan System or Rowan Plan: The scheme was introduced in 1901 by David Rowan of Glasgow, England. The wages are calculated on the basis of hours worked where as the ‘bonus is that proportion of the wages of time taken which the time saved bears to the standard time allowed’. Total wages under this scheme is calculated with the help of the following formula:
Earnings = Time taken x Rate per hour + Time saved / Standard time (Time taken x Rate per hour)
The main features of Rowan plan are:
a)      Time rate is guaranteed and the worker gets the guaranteed irrespective of whether he completes the job within the time also takes more time to do it.
b)      Standard time and standard work are fixed for the job or operation in advance;
c)       The workers producing more than the standard, or the workers completing the work in less than the standard time fixed, get bonus in addition to the ordinary time wage.
d)      Bonus is based on that proportion of the time wages which the time saved bears to the standard time.
e)      Workers who fail to reach the prescribed standard get the time wages.
f)       Labour cost per unit of output decreases. The employer also shares the benefit of efficiency which induced him to improve the method and equipment.
g)      Wages per hour increases but in the same proportion as the output.
The advantages and disadvantages of Rowan plan are as follows:
Advantages
(i) The plan assures a minimum hourly rate.
(ii) The quality of output is protected since the bonus declines after the worker has reached a given level of efficiency.
(iii) Labour cost per unit and fixed overhead cost per unit are reduced with increase in production.
Disadvantages
(i) The plan is not easily followed by most of the workers.
(ii) Efficiency beyond certain point is not rewarded. It fails to distinguish between a very efficient worker and a worker with a little more than average efficiency.
(iii) Since the employer gets a share of the wages of the time saved, the workers do not get the full benefit of their efforts.
Difference between Halsey and Rowan premium plan
Basis
Halsey Premium Plan
Rowan Premium Plan
Rate of bonus
Rate of bonus is fixed in case of halsey premium plan.
Rate of bonus is not fixed. Rate of bonus in this case will be percentage of time saved on time allowed.
Amount on which bonus is calculated
Bonus is calculated on the wages saved by employees.
Bonus is calculated on time wages.
Efficiency reward
Under Halsey System, the less efficient worker get less bonus and more efficient worker get more bonus.
Under Rowan System, the less efficient worker and highly efficient worker can get the same bonus.
Earning per hour
Under Halsey plan when time saved is more than 50% of standard time, earnings per hour are higher.
Under the Rowan plan when time saved is less than 50% of standard time, earnings per hour is higher.
Quality of output
The quality of work is affected under halsey plan as the bonus increases with increase in level of efficiency and the workers prefer to rush work.
The quality of work is not affected much under Rowan plan as the bonus increases at a decreasing rate at higher levels of efficiency and the workers do not prefer to rush work.

Labels

Absorption Costing (1) Accountancy (4) accounting for partnership firms (3) Accounting for Share Capital (3) accounts of non trading concern (3) advanced financial accounting (13) AHSEC (92) ahsec 11 (47) ahsec 12 (60) ahsec notes (89) AHSEC Question Papers (27) Assam Slet (10) bcfm (11) bills of exchange (6) branch accounting (3) Budgetary Control (3) Budgetary Control Notes (2) business communication (29) Business Environment Notes (7) business regulatory framewrok (47) Business Statistics Notes (23) cash flow statement (5) cbse 12 (19) cbse notes (27) commerce (13) company law (23) corporate accounting (33) corporate laws (14) cost accounting (63) cost and management accounting (34) cpt (36) cpt 200 (7) cpt notes (30) dibrugarh university (979) dibrugarh university notes (534) dibrugarh university question paper (341) dibrugarh university solved papers (211) dibrugarh university syllabus (47) direct tax law (49) eco - 01 (4) ECO - 02 (2) ECO - 03 (2) ECO - 05 (6) ECO - 06 (1) ECO - 07 (1) eco - 08 (4) eco - 09 (1) ECO - 10 (2) ECO - 11 (3) ECO - 12 (7) ECO - 13 (2) ECO - 14 (4) entrepreneurship (14) fianancial accounting (3) financial accounting (48) Financial Accounting Notes (11) financial management (18) Financial statements analysis (10) funds flow statement (3) guwahati university (304) guwahati university syllabus (54) Hire Purchase (5) Human Resource Management (14) icwai (38) icwai notes (39) ignou solved assignments (57) ignou solved question papers (63) income from house property (5) income from salary (4) Income Under the head Salaries (11) information technology (10) Installment Purchase (4) issue of shares (4) kkhsou (13) M.com (63) Management Accounting Notes (25) MCQ (11) paper I (1) paper II (9) paper III (1) principle of business mangement (16) Principles of Marketing Notes (16) royalty accounts (3) sale of goods act (8) semester I (157) Semester II (148) semester III (64) semester IV (136) semester V (101) semester VI (70) slet (13) Slet Ne (10) Small Business Management (5) solved assignments (22) UGC - NET: Commerce (08) (14) UGC - NET: Commerce (08) Paper II (3) UGC - NET: Commerce (08) Paper III (14) ugcnet solved question papers (23) Variance Analysis Notes (1)