Friday, February 27, 2015

AHSEC - CLASS 11: CMST IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR MAR' 2015 EXAM

Part 1 – 25 Marks Expected (Long Questions and Answers)
Part 2 – 55 Marks Expected (Practical Problems)
Part 3 – 20 Marks Expected (Multiple Choice and short answer type Questions)

Q.1. Define the term Statistics. What are its Characteristics? Mention its Functions and Limitations.
Ans: Statistics: The word Statistics seems to have been derived from the Latin word “status” or the Italian word Statista. All word means a political state. In early year “statistics” equipped a collection of facts about the people in the state for administration or political purpose.
A comprehensive definition was given by Prof. Horace Secrist, which is a follows:  “By Statistics we mean aggregates of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standards of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.”

Characteristics of Statistics:
(i) Statistics are aggregates of facts. Single and isolated figures are not statistics because they cannot be compared.

AHSEC - CLASS 11: ECONOMICS IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR MARCH' 2017 EXAM

Part A: Statistics for Economics Complete notes (50 Marks expected)
Q.1. What is economics? Who is called father of economics and statistics?
Ans: Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between scare means and ends.
Adam smith is called father of economics.
Gottfried Achenwall is called father of statistics.
Q.2. Define the term Statistics. What are its Characteristics? Mention its Functions and Limitations.
Ans: Statistics: The word Statistics seems to have been derived from the Latin word “status” or the Italian word Statista.
By Statistics we mean aggregates of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated or estimated according to reasonable standards of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.
Characteristics of Statistics:
(i) Statistics are aggregates of facts. (ii) Statistics must be numerically expressed.  (iii) Statistics should be capable of comparison and connected to each other. (iv) Statistics should be collected in a systematic manner. (v) Statistics should be collected for a definite purpose.
Importance of Statistics: Statistics is widely used in many fields.

Thursday, February 26, 2015

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ASP - 01 (2015 - 16)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ASP -01
Course Title: Secretarial Practice
Assignment Code: ASP - 01/TMA/2015-16
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100
Dear Students,
As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment in this Course.
Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-end examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignment as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide.
This assignment is valid for two admission cycles (July 2015 and January 2016.) The validity is given below:
1. Those who are enrolled in July 2015, it is valid upto June 2016.
2. Those who are enrolled in January 2016, it is valid upto December 2016.
You have to submit the assignment of all the courses to The Coordinator of your Study Centre. For appearing in June Term-end Examination, you must submit assignment to the Coordinator of your study centre latest by 15th March Similarly for appearing in December Term-end Examination, you must submit assignments to the Coordinator of your study centre latest by 15th September

Attempt all the questions

Monday, February 23, 2015

Dibrugarh University - Semester II - Principles of Business Management (New Syllabus)

Course No. 204 
PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT (PBMT VIII)
(For B.Com (General) And Six Speciality Programmes)
Marks: 80
Hours: 40

Objective: This course familiarises the students with the basis of Principles of Management.

Course Contents:

UNIT I: Concept of management; development of management thought; classical and neo- classical systems; Systems Approach, contingency approaches.                                       20: 10 hrs

UNIT II: Concept of planning; importance of planning; features of a good plan. Decision making- concept and techniques of decision making; Management by objectives-features, process, advantages and limitations;                       20: 10 hrs

Dibrugarh University - Semester II - Corporate Accounting (New Syllabus)

Course No. 203 
CORPORATE ACCOUNTING (COAC VII)
(For B.Com (General) And Six Speciality Programmes)
Marks: 80
Hours: 40

Objective: To impart reasonable knowledge to enable the students to pursue Corporate Accounting in conformity with the Companies Act, 2013.

Course Contents:

Unit-I: Shares & Debentures : Issue of different classes of shares forfeiture of shares, Pro-rata allotment, Issue of Bonus shares and legal provisions, Redemption of Preference shares–legal provisions and accounting entries. Debenture Issue and Redemption by sinking fund method (excluding Redemption by conversion), Redemption by open market operation, Cum-dividend and Ex-Dividend purchase.                            20 : 10 hrs

Unit II: Preparation of financial statements of companies with special reference to Accounting Standards and IFRS                           20: 10 hrs

Dibrugarh University - Semester II - Business Economics (New Syllabus)

Course No. 202 
BUSINESS ECONOMICS (BECO VI)
(For B.Com.General And Six Speciality Courses)
Marks: 80
Hours: 40

Objective: This course is meant to acquaint the students with the principles of Business Economics as are applicable in business.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Introduction: Meaning, nature, scope, characteristics of Business Economics; Relationship between Business Economics and Traditional Economics; Basic Problems of an economic system, Working of price mechanism.   20: 10 hrs

Unit II: Elasticity of Demand: Concepts, measurements, practical importance of elasticity of demand for business management; Supply theory.                     20: 10 hrs

Dibrugarh University - Semester II - Business Communication II (New Syllabus)

Course No. 201 
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION-II (BUCN V)
(For B.Com.General And Six Speciality Courses )
Marks: 80
Hours: 40

Objective: The objective of this course is to develop effective business communication skills among the students.

Course Contents:

Unit I: Report Writing: Introduction to a proposal, short report and formal report, report preparation.  20: 10 hrs

Unit II: Oral Presentation: Principles of oral presentation, factors affecting presentation, sales presentation, training presentation, conducting surveys, speeches to motivate, effective presentation skills.                  20: 10 hrs

Sunday, February 22, 2015

AHSEC - CLASS 11: ENGLISH STUDY PLAN FOR MAR' 2016 EXAM

Total Marks: 100 (90 Marks + 10 Marks Internal Assessment)
Pass Marks: 30

Unit – A: 20 Marks: Reading Unseen Passages (Two)
Passage 1 - 12 Marks
Passage 2 - 8 Marks
Follow RG’s question bank for preparation.

Unit – B: 20 Marks: Writing
1. Letter writing: Application for a Job, Letters to the Editors of newspapers. Other letters such a complaint letter and enquiry letter can also be studied.  8 Marks
2. Report writing based on any verbal input.        8 Marks
3. Explanation of a given situation. E.g. process to take admission in a college, process of opening a bank account.     4 Marks

Unit – C: 10 Marks: Grammar
1. Determiners and Tenses                          4 Marks
2. Editing Task: Correct a given paragraph containing error in each line. ½ marks for each error correction. 4 marks
3. Recording of sentences. Follow RG’s Question bank                   2 Marks

AHSEC - CLASS11: BUSINESS STUDIES MOST IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR MARCH' 2016 EXAM

Unit – I: Nature and purpose of business
Expected Marks: (8 to 10)
Q.1. Define Business. What are its essential characteristics?
Q.2. Define business, profession and employment and also distinguish between them. Also give two example of each. (Difference can be stated as features)
Q.3. What is business risk? What is its nature? Explain its causes.
Q.4. What are economic and non-economic activities? What are various classes of business activities?
Q.5. What is industry? Mention its various types.
Q.6. What is commerce? Mention it various types.
Q. 7. Explain the Objectives of Business.
Q.8. Compare and contrast between Industry, trade and Commerce.    
Q.9. What is economic and non-economic activities? Distinguish between them.
Unit – II: Forms of Business Organisation
Expected Marks: (8 to 10)
Q.1. What is sole trade business? Mention its features, merits and demerits.
Q.2. What is partnership? Mention its features, merits and demerits.

Friday, February 06, 2015

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: EEC - 11 (2014 - 2015)

Section-A
Long Answer Questions. (Answer in about 500 words each)                    2X20=40

Q.N.1. Distinguish (with graphical illustration) between price elasticity of Demand and cross elasticity of demand. How can you measure the elasticity of demand? Explain with example how the concept of elasticity of demand is useful for an industry in its decision making process?

Ans: Difference between Price and Cross Elasticity of Demand
COMPLETE SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR ONLINE MEMBERS ONLY.
BECOME ONLINE LEARNING MEMBER BY PAYING A NOMINAL FEE OF Rs.300 ONLY.

SOME SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS WILL ALSO BE PROVIDED.
FOR DETAILS CONTACT:
KUMAR NIRMAL PRASAD, TINSUKIA (ASSAM)
CONTACT NO. 9577097967

2. What are the advantages of International trade? Explain Heckscher-Ohlin’s (version) approach of international trade.
Ans: International trade and Its advantages
International trade refers to the exchange of goods and services between one country or region and another. It is also sometimes known as “inter-regional” or “foreign” trade. Briefly, trade between one nation and another is called “international” trade, and trade within the territory (political boundary) of a nation “internal” trade.
Advantages of International Trade:

Sunday, February 01, 2015

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 14 (2013 - 2014)


Answer of Q.N.1.

Ratio analysis is one of the techniques of financial analysis to evaluate the financial condition and performance of a business concern. Simply, ratio means the comparison of one figure to other relevant figure or figures.
According to Myers, “Ratio analysis of financial statements is a study of relationship among various financial factors in a business as disclosed by a single set of statements and a study of trend of these factors as shown in a series of statements."
There are various groups of people who are interested in analysis of financial position of a company used the ratio analysis to work out a particular financial characteristic of the company in which they are interested.
Following are the various classes of ratio used by various users to assess the financial soundness and efficiency of a company:
                (A) Liquidity Ratios:
                                (i) Short term solvency ratio
                                (ii) Long term solvency ratio
                (B) Profitability Ratios
                (C) Activity Ratios/ Turnover Ratios
                (D) Financial Ratios

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 12 (2013 - 2014)


Answer of Question No.1.
“Auditing begins where Accountancy ends”
The word audit is derived from the Latin word “AUDIRE” which means to hear. Initially auditor was a person appointed by the owners to check account whenever the suspected fraud, he was to hear explanation given by the person responsible for financial transactions. Emergence of joint stock companies changed the approach of auditing as ownership was pestered from management. The emphasis now is clearly on the verification of accounting date with a view on the reliability of accounting statement.
In the words of Spicier and Pegler ,“An audit is such an examination of the books, accounts and vouchers of a business as it enable the auditor to satisfy that the Balance Sheets is properly drawn up, so as to give a true and fair view of the state of the affairs of the business and whether the profit and loss accounts gives a true and fair view of the profit or loss for the financial period according to the best of his information and explanations given to him and as shown by the books, and if not, in what respects he is not satisfied”. 
In the words of Montgomery,”Auditing is a systematic examination of the books and records of a business or other organization, in order to ascertain or verify and report upon the facts regarding its financial operation and the result thereof”. 
In the words of Lawrence R. Dicksee,”An audit is an examination of records undertaken with a view to establishing whether they correctly and completely reflect the transactions to which they relate. In some circumstances it may be necessary to ascertain whether the transactions are supported by authority. 

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 11 (2015 - 2016)

Answer of Q.N.1.
Residential Status of an Individual
Residential status of an assessee is important in determining the scope of income on which income tax has to be paid in India. Broadly, an assessee may be resident or non-resident in India in a given previous year. An individual or HUF assessee who is resident in India may be further classified into
a)      Resident and ordinarily resident and
b)      Resident but not ordinarily resident.
Under the Income Tax Act, the incidence of tax is highest on a resident and ordinarily resident and lowest on a non-resident. Therefore, it is in the assessee advantage that he claims nonresident status if he satisfies the conditions for becoming a non-resident.
Under section 6(1), an individual is said to be resident in India in any previous year if he satisfies any one of the following basic conditions:-
a)      He is in India in the previous year for a period of at least 182 days or,
b)      He is in India for a period of at least 60 days during the relevant previous year and at least 365 days during the four years preceding that previous year. The aforesaid rule of residence is subject to the following exceptions:-
Where an individual, who is a citizen of India, leaves India in any year for the purpose of employment (or where an individual, who is a citizen of India, leaves India as a member of the crew of an Indian ship), he is not to be treated as resident in India in that year unless he has been in India in that year for at least 182 Days.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 10 (2013-2014)


Answer of Q.N.1.

Inventory Control
The term ‘Inventory’ is used to denote (i) goods awaiting sale (the stock items of a trading concern and the finished stocks of a manufacturer); (ii) the goods in course of manufacture, known as work-in-progress, and (iii) goods to be used directly or indirectly in production, i.e., raw materials and supplies.
In a manufacturing company, normally the cost of materials constitutes fifty percent of the production cost and the cost of inventory (i.e., raw materials W.I.P., and finished good) represents about one-third of the total assets. As the costs of materials and inventory are quite formidable but at the same time controllable, there is a great need felt for proper planning, purchasing, handling and accounting for the same, and also to organize the system of inventory control in a manner that it may provide the maximum profitably to the management.

Techniques of Inventory Control
The techniques or the tools generally used to effect control over the inventory are the following:
1)      Budgetary techniques for inventory planning;
2)      A-B-C. System of inventory control;
3)      Economic Order Quantity (E.O.Q.) i.e., how much to purchase at one time economically;

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 01 (2013-2014)


Answer of Question No.1. (a)

Advantages of Road Transport:
There are numerous advantages of road transport in comparison to other modes of transport. 
1. Less capital quality:- Road transport required much less capital investment as compared to other modes of transport such as railways and air transport. 

2. Door to door services: - The outstanding advantage of road transport is that it provides door to door or warehouse to warehouse services. 

3. Services in rural areas:- Road transport is most suited for carrying goods and people to and from rural areas which are not served by rail, water or air transport. 

4. Flexible services:- Road transport has a great advantage over other modes of transport for its flexible services. Its routes and timings can be adjusted and changed to individual requirements without much inconvenience. 

5. Suitable for short distance:- Delays in transit of gods on account of intermediate loading and handling are avoided. Goods can be loaded direct into a road vehicle and transported straight to their place of destination. 

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 05 (2015 - 16)

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code: ECO - 05
Course Title: Mercantile Law
Assignment Code: ECO – 05/TMA/2015-16
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100
Attempt all the questions.
1. (a) All contracts are agreements but all agreements are not contracts. Comment.                       10
Ans: Section 2 (h) defines ‘Contract’ as an agreement enforceable by law.  If we analyse the definition it has two components viz.
(i) An agreement and
(ii) Its enforceability by law.
Section 2 (e) defines ‘agreement’ as “every promise and set of promises forming consideration for each other”. For a contract to be enforceable by law there must be an agreement which should be enforceable by law. To be enforceable, the agreement must be coupled with obligation. Obligation is a legal duty to do or abstain from doing what one promised to do or abstain from doing.  All contracts are agreements but for agreement to be a contract it has to be legally enforceable.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: ECO - 02 (2013 - 2014)


Answer of Q.N.1.
Accounting concepts:
In order to make the accounting language convey the same meaning to all people & to make it more meaningful, most of the accountants have agreed on a number of concepts which are usually followed for preparing the financial statements. These concepts provide a foundation for accounting process. No enterprise can prepare its financial statements without considering these concepts. The term ‘concept’ is used to denote accounting postulates, i.e., basic assumptions or conditions upon which the accounting structure is based.

The characteristics of Accounting Concepts are:
Ø  Accounting Concepts are made and developed by men (accountants) and, as such, they do not have the authoritativeness of universal principles, like other natural sciences, viz. Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics etc. It is an empirical science i.e. based on what is experienced or seen.
Ø  The general acceptance of an accounting principle usually depends on how well it satisfies three criteria: Relevance, Objectivity and Feasibility. The word ‘relevant’ implies that the information will be useful to the users. The word ‘objectivity’ implies that the recorded data are reliable and verifiable. The word ‘feasibility’ implies that the implementation of the principle in practice will be without much complexity and cost. 
Ø  Accounting principles cannot be validated /proved by reference to natural laws, as in the case of physical sciences. They are the best possible suggestions based on practical experiences, reasons and observations which have been developed by the persons/authorities engaged in the accounting profession over the years. 

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: BSHF - 101 (2014-15) - DEMO

Foundation Course in Humanities and Social Sciences
Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA)
Course Code: BSHF-101
Assignment Code: BSHF-101/AST/TMA/2014-15
Total Marks: 100
Note: Instructions are there with each section.
Section - A
DCQ: Answer any two in about 500 words each.
1. Can we say that the post-industrial society makes a shift towards service sector and ICT? Discuss. 20
Ans: Answer of only two questions is necessary.

2. Comment on Mahatma Gandhi's role in the national movement. 20
Ans: Gandhi initially favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort when World War II broke out in 1939, but the Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war without consultation of the people's representatives. All Congressmen resigned from office. After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech at Gowalia Tank Maidan. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: AOM - 01 (2014-15) - DEMO

Course Code: AOM-01
Course Title: Office Organization and Management
Assignment Code: AOM-01/TMA/2014-15
Coverage: All Blocks

Attempt All Questions:
Q.No.1. What do you mean by open office? What are its merits and demerits?
Ans: Open Office: A large room where all the departments, men and equipments are accommodated without partition wall is called an open office. In this case, staff is put in big hap instead of separate rooms. In that hall every department is allotted a separate space and the departmental demarcation is done through filing cabinets or shelves. Open office makes fullest utilisation of space and ensures better control. Open plan office spaces can provide a social, more interactive environment for employees, especially in smaller offices. However, open plan offices will not suit everybody so if you’re considering making the switch to open plan, you may want to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages first.

Advantages of open office
1. Better space utilization is possible, because space has not been lost by partitions.

2. The section-heads or supervisors feel easy to watch the office. It is also possible to reduce the number of supervisors.

3. The layout of the office can be altered or changed without any expense.

4. There is more economy in arrangement of light.

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: AMK - 01 (2014 - 15) - DEMO

Course Code: AMK-01
Course Title: Marketing
Assignment Code: AMK-01/TMA/2014-15
Coverage: All Blocks
Maximum Marks: 100

Attempt all the questions.
Q.No.1: Discuss various branding strategies available to marketers. Also discuss their relative merits and limitations.
Solution: Branding:  Branding is a process of creating a unique name and image for a product in the mind of consumer, mainly through advertising campaigns. A brand is a name, term, symbol, design or combination of these elements, used to identify a product, a family of products, or all products of an organisation.
According to American Marketing Association - Brand is “A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller. If used for the firm as a whole, the preferred term is trade name.”
According to Philip Kotler - “Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors”
Branding Strategies: Branding is an important component of product planning process and an important and powerful tool for marketing and selling products. There are various branding strategies on which marketing organisations rely to meet sales and marketing objectives. Some of these strategies are as following:
COMPLETE SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR ONLINE MEMBERS ONLY.
BECOME ONLINE LEARNING MEMBER BY PAYING A NOMINAL FEE OF Rs.300 ONLY.
SOME SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS WILL ALSO BE PROVIDED.
FOR DETAILS CONTACT:

IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT: AED - 01 (2014 - 15) - DEMO

Course Code: AED - 01
Course Title: Export Procedures and Documentation
Assignment Code: AED - 01/TMA/2014-15
Coverage: All Blocks
Attempt all the questions.

Q.No.1:- What is the Significance of International Trade? Discuss the factors that motivate a firm to export.
Ans:  Meaning and Significance: International trade allows us to expand our markets for both goods and services that otherwise may not have been available to us. It is the reason why you can pick between a Japanese, German or American car. As a result of international trade, the market contains greater competition and therefore more competitive prices, which brings a cheaper product home to the consumer.

International trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries. This type of trade gives rise to a world economy, in which prices, or supply and demand, affect and are affected by global events. Political change in Asia, for example, could result in an increase in the cost of labour, thereby increasing the manufacturing costs for an American sneaker company based in Malaysia, which would then result in an increase in the price that you have to pay to buy the tennis shoes at your local mall. A decrease in the cost of labour, on the other hand, would result in you having to pay less for your new shoes.

Trading globally gives consumers and countries the opportunity to be exposed to goods and services not available in their own countries. Almost every kind of product can be found on the international market: food, clothes, spare parts, oil, jewelry, wine, stocks, currencies and water. Services are also traded: tourism, banking, consulting and transportation. A product that is sold to the global market is an export, and a product that is bought from the global market is an import. Imports and exports are accounted for in a country's current account in the balance of payments.

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