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Wednesday, May 20, 2015

AHSEC Class 12 Question Paper: Banking' 2013

H.S. 2nd Year
Full Marks: 100
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. Answer as directed:                                                                                  1x8=8
(a) In which year State Bank of India was established?
(b) Who issues one rupee notes?
(c) What do you mean by unit banking?
(d) Define promissory note.
(e) IMF was established in the year 1944 / 1945 / 1946 (choose the correct year)
(f) Write the full form of MMMFs.
(g) What is order cheque?
(h) Capital Market is the market for long term funds. (State whether true or false)

2. Give the meaning of Cash Reserve Ratio.                                                              2

3. Name two private sector banks in India.                                                                 2

4. What do you mean by stock exchange?                                                                  2

5. What is Mutual Fund?                                                                                             2

AHSEC Class 12 Question Paper: Business Studies' 2012

Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: 3 hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.
1. Answer the following questions: 1*10=10
(a) Name the book authored by Henry Fayol on Management.

(b) Which principle of management promotes team sprite.

(c) Which policy of govt. has moved India towards globalization?

(d) Mention one responsibility on consumer under consumer Protection Act.

(e) Which function of management is considered as the base of all other function?

(f) Name the process concerned with searching for prospective candidates for various jobs in an organization.

(g) Give any two benefit of training to the organization.

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

AHSEC Class 12 Question Paper: Business Studies' 2015

Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: 3 hours
The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.
1. Answer the following questions:
a)      At which level business policy is farmed?                                                                       1
b)      Who defined management as the art of getting things done through others?                  1
c)       Which principle of management promotes team spirit?                                                  1
d)      Which technique of scientific management does provide of eight specialist foremen over workers?         1
e)      Name the function by which managers build an organization through the recruitment, selection and development of individual as capable employees.     1
f)       Which is the most costly capital for a company?                                                           1
g)      In which year NSE came into existence?                          1
h)      Which marketing philosophy gives more importance to ‘Consumer Welfare’ instead of ‘Consumer Satisfaction’?                                                                                             1

Monday, May 18, 2015

AHSEC Class 12 Question Paper: Accountancy' 2015

Full Marks: 100
Pass Marks: 30
Time: Three hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.
 1. (a) Fill in the blanks with appropriate word:                                     1x4=4
(i)      If a partner takes over a liability of the firm, the partner’s capital account is _____.
(ii)    A partner acts as an _____ for the firm.
(iii)   When Partner’s Capital Accounts are fixed, then their _____ accounts.
(iv)  _____ is the extra earning capacity of a firm.

(b) Choose the correct alternative:                                                          1x2=2
(i) In the event of death of a partner, the amount of general reserve is transferred to the Partner’s Capital Accounts in:
1)      New Profit sharing ratio.
2)      Old Profit sharing ratio.
3)      Capital ratio.
4)      None of the above.

Sunday, May 17, 2015

Corporate Accounting Multiple Choice Questions for Upcoming Exam

Corporate Accounting multiple choice questions
Fill in the Blanks:
a)      Share application account is a personal Account.
b)      Dividend declared between two annual general meetings is known as Interim Dividend.
c)       Reduction of capital is unlawful except when sanctioned by the court under sec.61.
d)      Pre-acquisition Profits are treated as capital Profit.
e)      The minimum Share Application money is 5% of the face value of shares.
f)       Accounting for Amalgamation is done as per Accounting Standard 14.
g)      Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared as per Accounting Standard 21.
h)      The portion of the authorized capital which can be called up only on the liquidation of the company is called Reserve capital.
i)        A debenture holder is the creditor of a company.
j)        Section 2(87) of the Companies Act, 2013 defines a subsidiary company.
k)      Public Ltd. Companies cannot issue deferred shares. (Equity/Preference/Deferred).
l)        Preference Shares can be redeemed if they are fully paid up.
m)    In case of holding company shares held by outsiders are known as Minority Interest.
n)      Internal reconstruction means reduction of a share capital of a company which is to be reconstructed.

Wednesday, May 06, 2015

Resume - Features and Proforma

Resume and Its Essential features:
A resume is a selective record of one’s professional and educational achievements like formal education, work experience, qualification, and abilities and so on. While defining resume Pauley and Riordan write: “your resume is a one-page document that summarizes your skills, experiences and qualification for a position in your field”. Often the term like curriculum vitae and bio-data are used synonymously for resume. The word bio-data refers to biographical details of somebody. It may include information about one’s background, educational qualifications, skills, abilities, hobbies, interests and other particulars of the like nature where a resume refers precisely y to one’s professional skills and educational qualifications, work experience and other relevant information which justify one’s claim to a job in question. It highlights a person’s fitness or suitability for a job he/she is seeking for.
Essential features of a powerful resume: Here are some essential features of a good resume:
1.       Well organized: It should be well organized and integrated to present one’s career aspirations in the field, and showing interest in the offer, as a part of accomplishment of long term career objective.
2.       Short and Precise: It should be written in short sentences and Paragraphs.
3.       Unique: Giving generalized details won't help much. By creating a unique resume dealing with organization specific requirements, one can attract employer’s attention. It needs to cover all remarkable academic achievements to create an extra advantage.
4.       Authentic and realizable: It is disastrous to give imaginative or highly unrealistic details. One must offer relevant and realizable things to figure out his skills in the field to provide effective and efficient services. Thus, while building resume it is necessary to be realistic and concrete.

Consideration of an Interviewer before conducting interview

General consideration of an Interviewer before conducting interview:
Giving an interview is equally important as taking interview, one has to be very careful while giving an interview, there are following guidelines in general which could enable an interviewer to conduct a good and effective interview.
a) Preparation
b) Conduct during interview
c) Evaluation

a) Preparation: The interviewer should prepare himself before the interview; the following points are to be considered in this regard.
1. Reading applicant’s Resume: There is much information provider in his resume so the resume should be read in detail. So as to asks the question in the perspective of resume.
2. Being aware of state Regulation: There are many policies and rules and regulation made by a state about the recruitment of employees. The interviewer should be aware of them so as to avoid any prospective lawsuit.
3. Planning the questions: The interviewer should plan the pattern of question, the number of question types length duration etc. should be clear in the mind of interviewer.
4. Omitting personal bias: There might be many biases in the minds of interviewer about the candidates. In order to make the interviewee fair he should avoid these biases.

Preparation by Candidates before appearing for Interview

Interviewee’s preparation for the interview
Before commence of Interview
a.       The interviewee should be dressed formally, and not casually. Have a pleasing appearance as the candidate’s personality is a significant part of the communication.
2)      Always carry an extra CV, a notepad to write on, a pen, and all essential things required in an interview.
3)      Practice, practice and practice in advance. Prepare and rehearse for the unexpected also.
4)      Research a lot about the organization for which you are being interviewed.
5)      Be punctual. Try reaching before time for the job interview.
6)      Know the habits and hobbies of interviewer and think over them thoroughly.
7)      Anticipate the possible questions related with the job and subject and prepare them properly.
8)      Regain confidence before entering the interview room
Interviewee’s conduct during interview
9)      Greet the interview board with polite wish.
10)   Sit in natural way when asked to sit.
11)   Be courteous and sophisticated during an interview.
12)   Avoid looking funny or too serious.

Interview - Meaning, Types and Importance

Meaning of Interview
An interview means a face to face interaction between the interviewer and the candidate/candidates so as to obtain desired information from him/them. It can also be defined as a way of exchanging meanings between individuals by using a common set of symbols. Interviews generally need a preparation.
According to Gary Dessler, “An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person’s oral response to oral inquiries.”
According to Thill and Bovee, “An interview is any planed conversation with a specific purpose involving two or more people”.
So, an interview is formal meetings between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information, qualities, attitudes, wishes etc. Form the interviewee.

Types of interviews: There are many types of interviews that an organization can arrange. It depends on the objectives of taking the interview. Some important types of interviews are stated below:
a)      Personal interviews: Personal interviews include Selection of the employees, Promotion of the employees and Retirement and resignation of the employees. This type of interview is designed to obtain information through discussion and observation about how well the interviewer will perform on the job.

Types of Communication - Verbal, Written and Non-Verbal Communication

Types of Communication
There are three main types of communication media through which the employee or the managers can easily communicate.
(i) Oral or Verbal Communication: Oral communication is the face to face communication between individuals. In dealing face-to-face, we can judge how the other party is reacting, get immediate feedback, and answer questions to avoid any misunderstanding. Some of the electronic and non-electronic devices such as telephones, cell-phones (mobiles), walkie–talkie, speakers, and audio-video presentations are some of the examples used in verbal communication.
(ii) Written communication: Most formal communication takes place in a written –form. It is a tangible record of communication, messages, enquiries and instructions. Written communication is transmitted through written words in the form of letters, circulars, memos, reports, handbooks, manuals etc... Written communications are permanent, tangible and verifiable. A record is maintained and, both the sender and the receiver have access to the records for further clarification.
(iii) Non-Verbal Communication: Non-verbal communication (NVC) refers to messages sent through human actions and behaviour rather than through words. It is a communication exchange that does not use words or that uses words to carry more meaning than the strict definition of the words themselves. It often relies on facial expression, body movements, gestures, eye- contact, handshakes, dress, posture, inflections etc

Oral and Written Communication - Meaning, Advantages, Disadvantages and Differences

Oral communication
Oral communication means communication through words spoken i.e. by speech: - In oral Communication, Both the parties to the process, i.e. sender and receiver, exchange their ideas through oral words either in face to face communication or through any mechanical or electrical device, such as telephone etc. in this system person can exchange their feelings fully and clarification regarding any doubt or ambiguity may be sought. Oral communication is preferred by rank and file employees as well as supervisors and managers, as they enjoy the opportunity to ask questions and to participate.
1. Economical: Oral communication is relatively less expensive. It saves the money spent on stationary in an organization.
2. Time sever: Oral communication is fast. It saves the time involved in writing the message.
3. Flexible: Oral communication is very flexible in sense it provides an opportunity to the speaker to correct himself and make himself clear by changing his voice, pitch, tone etc.
4. Quick response: Oral communication is also helpful in getting quicker response from the receiver. The speaker gets immediate response from the receiver. It thus provides immediate feedback to both sender and receiver.
5. Personal touch: Oral communication is personal in nature. It is this nature that brings superiors and subordinates closer. It is also an effective tool of persuasion.
6. Maintains secrecy: Oral communication has an added advantage of maintaining secrecy. Oral messages can be more easily kept confidential than written messages.

Effective Listening - Need, Importance, Problems and Principles of Effective Listening

Effective Listening:
Listening is an essential part of spoken communication. Speaking and listening go together and oral communication cannot be effective without proper listening. Poor listening defeats the very purpose of spoken words. Listening is a deliberate effort and is much more than hearing. It requires getting the full meaning of what is being said.
Listening effectively takes skill, self-motivation, and practice. Effective listening means concentrating on what the speaker says rather than on how it is said. Lack of attention and respectful listening can be costly - leading to mistakes, poor service, misaligned goals, wasted time and lack of teamwork.
Reasons for Effective Listening
a)      To avoid Misunderstandings:  we will be able to avoid misunderstandings by becoming an active listener. We will also be able to do things right the first time when you listen effectively. Problems are solved quicker by being an "active listener".
b)      To Get along Better with Others: Listening actively will show that you sincerely care. It is a very high compliment when we listen to others, because it gives the speaker the sense of self worth and confidence.
c)       To will learn more About the World: Television, radio, and conversations aid in our understanding. The more knowledge we gain, the more we will enjoy the things around us.
d)      To be more successful on the Job: Our grades and interest in job will increase as a result of effective listening. Many jobs require good listening skills such as telephone operators, nurses, doctors, auto mechanics, teachers, lawyers, etc.

Visual Aids in Communication

Use of visuals aids in communication
Visual aids are one of the important part of business communication. They are used to show something for conveying the message and are supplementary to key words. These aids are helpful to improve readability and physical appearance of report. Different visual aids such as graphs, pictures, tables. Etc are used to show something.
The advantages of visual aids in communication are:
a)      Time saving: with the help of visual aids, message can be communicated quickly.
b)      Quick understanding: With the help of visual aids, receiver can understand the message sharply. This wil save time and energy of communicator.
c)       Long time memory: Through pictures or visuals aids, message remains in human memory for a long period.
The disadvantages of visual aids in communication are:
a)      Reguisites: It requires more professional skills.
b)      Unsuitability: It can convey only elementary ideas. It is not suitable for complex and complicated ideas.
However, following guidelines for effective visuals are important:

Non-Verbal Communication - Kinesics, Para Language and Proxemics

Types of Non-verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication is mainly of three types
a)      Kinesics
b)      Para language
c)       Proxemics
The word kinesics literally means body movement. It stands for the way the body communicates without words, and through various movements of its parts.
Importance of Kinesics:
1.       The importance of kinesics can be put brought forward by the words of famous psychologies Paul Ekman who says, “We talk with our vocal cord but we communicates with our facial expression, tone and pitch of voice, our whole body.”
2.       The importance of body language lies in the fact that one can play fast and loose with words but body language speaks truth.
3.       When managers consciously read what others are conveying by body movement, they can easily deal with issues before their become problem.
4.       Non-verbal communication is also important because it is efficient. A message can be very well transmitted more economically than any other means of communication.
Role of different parts of body in Communication:

Effective Presentation Skill

Effective Presentation
Presentation can be defined as a formal event characterized by teamwork and use of audio-visual aids. The main purpose of presentation is to give information, to persuade the audience to act and to create goodwill. A good presentation should have a good subject matter, should match with the objective, should best fit the audience, and should be well organized.
Essentials or Characteristics of a Good/Effective Presentation
1)      The presentation ideas should be well adapted to audience. Relating presentation message/idea to the interests of the audience is necessary. A detailed audience analysis must be made before the presentation.
2)      A good presentation should be concise and should be focused on the topic. It should not move off-track.
3)      A good presentation should have the potential to convey the required information.

5)      The fear should be transformed into positive energy during the presentation. Be calm and relaxed while giving a presentation.
6)      To communicate the desired information, the speaker should use more of visual aids such as transparencies, diagrams, pictures, charts, etc. Each transparency/slide should contain limited and essential information only. No slide should be kept on for a longer time.

Oral Presentation - Principles and Factors affecting It

Oral Presentation
The term Oral Presentation in business communication refers to a speech, made with the help of at least one companion on the basis of adequate information. Oral presentation involves communication by one speaker to a larger number of audience members. Oral presentation are usually short and less formal that oral speeches. It is delivered with demonstrations of audio-visual aids followed by answer to questions from the audience. Oral presentations have three basic purposes: (1) to inform, (2) to persuade and (3) to build goodwill. There may be many occasions for a oral presentation, such as (i) launching of a new product or service, (ii) Starting a training course, (iii) presenting a new business plan.
Principles of effective oral Presentation
Regardless of purpose of presentation, these three steps should be followed for better result:
(i) Planning the presentation:
(a) Studying the purpose and profile of audience.
(b) Gathering needed information through research.
(c) Adapting the presentation to occasion and audience.
(ii) Writing the presentation:
(a) Defining the main idea, choosing the approach, preparing the outline and deciding on style.

Speeches to Motivate and It's Characteristics

Speeches to Motivate
Delivering motivating speeches is also a form of oral presentation. Motivational speeches can be called persuasive speeches which rouse such emotions and desires in an individual that he is inspired to take action. Before delivering motivational speeches, executives have to identify the motivation of the employees. Motivations are the inner urge an individual to that channelise him to work. Each individual has urge to work and management has to transform these urges and drives in realisation of organisational objectives. While preparing a speech for motivation, the speaker should keep in mind a few following things:
a.       Recognise the need of audience.
b.      Thinks over the driver i.e. the thing which can motivate people. Besides money, desire to earn name and fame or respect of others or to establish an image can be drivers.
c.       Use of effective presentation skills will help the speaker to get a positive response from the audience.
d.      Use of visual aids can maintain and revive audience interest.
e.      Speeches to motivate should be delivered very effectively. Only a powerful and persuasive speech can motivate the audience. Thus, speakers have to master the art of delivery. An important way to acquire proficiency in speaking is to practice.
f.        A speaker delivering a speech to motivate may have to face many questions and doubts from the audience. The success of his speech depends on handling questions effectively and confidently.

Conducting Survey

Conducting Survey and its Principles
In business world, surveys and research are conducted for various aspects like economic, social and sometime political. Surveys are useful in examining certain facts and in finding out solutions to various problems. With the help of survey, we can know what a cross section of people think about a topic in question or what are their preferences or opinion about a given topic.
A survey is generally done for presenting informative sales presentation or writing report. The main purpose of conducting a survey is either to substantiate the perceived facts or to know the new facts for a large group of people called respondents to elicit their options. A questionnaire is a written list of question that people fill out. It is the easiest way to collect option.  Surveys are useful only when they are reliable and valid. A survey is reliable if it produces identical results when repeated. Certain guidelines for preparing questionnaire for conducting such a reliable and valid survey are listed below:
a.       Provide clear instructions: Respondents need to know exactly how to fill out the questionnaire.
b.      Keep the questionnaire short and easy to answer: Ask only questions that are relevant to research and easy to answer.
c.       Formulate questions that provide easy tabulated or analysed answers: Remember numbers and facts are easier to summarise than opinions.

Training Presentation

Training Presentations
Training presentations are informative presentations that teach listeners how to do something. For example :- office manager explains to the employees how to use intercoms or voice-mail systems, personnel manager trains the new entrants by explaining them company’s about the roles and responsibilities of new job, etc. These training presentations can be informal or highly structured, from simple tips of experienced employees to a month long seminar.
How to make training presentations effective?
Like other presentation, training presentations involve the same principles and procedures. More specifically training presentations should involve:
1. Strategy.
2. Organizing the Informative Messages.
3. Effective Delivery.
1. Strategy: The strategy for effective training presentation involves the following:
(a) Cover only necessary information: The presenter may have thorough and a depth knowledge of the subject, but he has to present the essential in very simple way. If he covers the topic in too much detail, he is likely to bore or even antagonize his listeners. Therefore, he should avoid giving details. If the members of the audience want more information, they will probably ask for it.

Sales Presentation and Qualities of a Successful Sales Person

Sales Presentation
A Sales presentation is that presentation whose main objectives it to sell some goods and services. A sale presentation is a type of conversation. The sales representative uses questions to determine the buyer’s needs, probes objections and gains temporarily and then final commitment to the purchase. Sales presentations are persuasive in nature and therefore, presentation must be unique and audience focused. Although a strong sales presentation cannot ensures sales success, but it will build credibility and support to help the presenter reach sales objectives.

Qualities should a successful sales person or Essentials for effective salesmanship.
Following are the essentials or important requisites for effective salesmanship:
(i) Sales personality: Personality of salesman determines effectiveness of selling to a great extent. To become a successful salesman, he should possess certain qualities such as:
(a) Physical traits such as appearance including facial expression, height, dress, posture, health, voice and conversation etc.
(b) Mental traits such as accuracy, alertness, imagination and resourcefulness, initiative, self-confidence, cheerfulness, good memory, etc.

Proposals - Meaning, Types and It's Drafting

A Proposal can be defined as an offer document presented to undertake work affecting the future of an organisation. Usually a proposal is given for any additions or amendments to be incorporated within a business framework. Proposals are also tools of communication but in a different sense. They do not just give the facts but also a probable solution to a particular problem or situation. They can be written to people within or outside an organisation.
Types of Proposals
Proposals can be classified into two types: Sales Proposal and Research Proposals
Sales Proposals are written with the aim of bringing gains for the proposing organisation. Such kind of proposals are also known as business proposals. Sales proposals need to be creative in order to make a mark on their target audience. Research proposals are of an academic nature.
Proposals can be further classified into two types, viz. Solicited and Unsolicited.
Solicited Proposals are those which are asked for by the management or authorities. They can be internal or external, depending on their subject. These kinds of proposals usually face a lot of competition. Unsolicited proposals are given by individuals or companies on their own. These may be form internal or external sources. They form a major part of sales technique in various sectors.
Report vs. Proposals

Meaning of Report and Its Types

Report Writing
Report is a self-explanatory statement of facts relating to a specific subject and serves the purpose of providing information for decision making and follow up actions. It is a systematic presentation of ascertained facts about a specific event / subject. Report is a summary of findings and recommendations about a particular matter / problem. Report is for the guidance of higher authorities including company executives and directors. Reports facilitate timely decisions and follow up measures. According to Oxford Dictionary, report means "a record of ascertained facts."
Types of Report
Reports are of two types mainly – oral and written. The basis of an oral report depends on the facts seen or observed, and it is a piece of face to face communication. If it is not recorded, it is as transient as any other oral communication. It is time-saving for the reporter, but it is time-consuming for the receiver as the receiver has to listen to every word of the report. On the other hand, a written report is comparatively more precise and permanent. It gives the reader an opportunity to just go through it, or only read the abstract or the conclusions or recommendations of it. It is more formal than an oral report and can be referred to over and over again.  

Report Writing - Features and Essentials of a good report

Report Writing
Report is a self-explanatory statement of facts relating to a specific subject and serves the purpose of providing information for decision making and follow up actions. It is a systematic presentation of ascertained facts about a specific event / subject. Report is a summary of findings and recommendations about a particular matter / problem. Report is for the guidance of higher authorities including company executives and directors. Reports facilitate timely decisions and follow up measures. According to Oxford Dictionary, report means "a record of ascertained facts."
Features or Characteristics of Report
1.       Complete and Compact Document: Report is a complete and compact written document giving updated information about a specific problem.
2.       Systematic Presentation of Facts: Report is a systematic presentation of facts, figures, conclusions and recommendations. Report writers closely study the problem under investigation and prepare a report after analyzing all relevant information regarding the problem. Report is supported by facts and evidence. There is no scope for imagination in a report which is basically a factual document.
3.       Prepared in Writing: Reports are usually in writing. Writing reports are useful for reference purpose. It serves as complete, compact and self-explanatory document over a long period. Oral reporting is possible in the case of secret and confidential matters.
4.       Provides Information and Guidance: Report is a valuable document which gives information and guidance to the management while framing future policies. It facilitates planning and decision making. Reports are also useful for solving problems faced by a business enterprise.

Tuesday, May 05, 2015

Income under the Head Capital Gains

Q.1. What is capital gain? How it is computed? What are the basis of chargeability of capital gain under Income Tax Act. 1961?
Ans: Capital Gain: Capital gain is the gain which arises from the transfer of a capital asset. Any profit or gain, which arises during a previous year, is chargeable under the head "capital gains" under Section 45. For a gain to be charged under the head "capital gain," it should arise due to a transfer of a capital asset. Such a profit or gain should not be exempt from tax under sections 54, 54B, 54D, 54EC, 54ED, 54FD, and 54G of Income Tax Act.

a)      Long term capital gains:  When a capital asset is transferred by an assessee after having held it for at least 36 months, the capital gains arising from   this transfer is known as Long Term Capital Gains. In case of shares of a company or unit of UTI or a unit of a Mutual   Fund, the minimum period of holding for long term capital gains to arise is 12 months.
b)      Short term capital gain: If the period of holding of capital asset before transfer is less than 36 months, the capital gains arising from such transfer are known as Short Term Capital Gains.

Mode of Computation of Capital Gain [Sec. 48]