Meaning of Interview
An interview means a face to face interaction between the interviewer and the candidate/candidates so as to obtain desired information from him/them. It can also be defined as a way of exchanging meanings between individuals by using a common set of symbols. Interviews generally need a preparation.
According to Gary Dessler, “An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person’s oral response to oral inquiries.”
According to Thill and Bovee, “An interview is any planed conversation with a specific purpose involving two or more people”.
So, an interview is formal meetings between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information, qualities, attitudes, wishes etc. Form the interviewee.
Types of interviews: There are many types of interviews that an organization can arrange. It depends on the objectives of taking the interview. Some important types of interviews are stated below:
a) Personal interviews: Personal interviews include Selection of the employees, Promotion of the employees and Retirement and resignation of the employees. This type of interview is designed to obtain information through discussion and observation about how well the interviewer will perform on the job.
b) Evaluation interviews: The interviews which take place annually to review the progress of the interviewee are called the evaluation interviews. Naturally, it is occurring between superiors and subordinates. The main objective of this interview is to find out the strengths and weaknesses of the employees.
c) Persuasive interviews: This type of interview is designed to sell someone a product or an idea. When a sales representative talk with a target buyer, persuasion takes the form of convincing the target that the product or idea meets a need.
d) Structured interviews: Structured interviews tend to follow formal procedures; the interviewer follows a predetermined agenda or questions.
e) Unstructured interviews: When the interview does not follow the formal rules or procedures. It is called an unstructured interview. The discussion will probably be free flowing and may shift rapidly form on subject to another depending on the interests of the interviewee and the interviewer.
f) Counseling interviews: This may be held to find out what has been troubling the workers and why someone has not been working.
g) Disciplinary interviews: Disciplinary interviews are occurring when an employee has been accused of breaching the organization’s rules and procedures.
h) Stress interviews: It is designed to place the interviewee in a stress situation in order to observe the interviewees reaction.
i) Public interviews: These include political parties’ radio-television and newspaper.
j) Informal or conversational interview: In the conversational interview, no predetermined questions are asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable a possible to the interviewee’s nature and priorities; during the interview the interviewer “goes with the flow”.
Importance of Interview
Interview plays a very important role in interpersonal communication, since it is between two persons or parties i.e. interviewer and interviewer, its importance is discussed with respect to both aspects.
a) From Interviewer Point of View: Interview has following importance for the interviewer.
1. To match the applicant and the job: A job has specific requirement. Every person is not suitable for every kind of job, so the interviews enable the interviewer to match the applicant and the job requirement. This matching may be in the following way.
(a) Matching Qualification: A candidate having a master’s degree does not mean that he has the knowledge of master level. Asking questions about the field of candidate enables the interviewer to know as to how much knowledge the candidate has acquired.
(b) Matching Candidate Ability: Different candidates have different abilities. The interview helps know the abilities of every candidate according to the job requirement.
(c) Other Areas: Candidate’s conduct, attitude, confidence, communication skill and other areas are expressed means of interviewers.
2. To develop the image of organization: Another secondary role of interviews is to establish a good image of an organization before candidate and ultimately before the market.
b) From Interviewee Point of View: An interview is equally important for interviewers as it’s for interview. This importance is enumerated as follows.
1. To have information: An interviewee can have different information about the organization. This information might be about the organization nature of job salary rule and regulations, etc.
2. To have a suitable job: Interview helps the candidate know about the job. In this way, he / she can choose the best one of him / her.