Tuesday, July 21, 2015

AHSEC - 12: Directing Important Notes for Feb' 2018 Exam

Unit – 7: Directing
1. Define the term ‘Directing’.
Ans: Directing is telling the people what to do and seeing that they do it in best of their ability. This function of management is concerned with guiding the employees in the organisation to achieve organisational goal.
2. State the elements of Directing.                          2009, 2012, 2015
Ans: Supervision, leadership, Motivation and communication. (Details are given below)
3. State features of Directing.
Ans:  a) It initiates action b) It is a continuous function c) It flows from top to bottom d) It is performance oriented e) It is a universal/pervasive function.
4. What is a motive?
Ans: Motive is an inner state or desire which energizes an individual to move or behave towards achievement of goal.
5. State two features of Leadership.
Ans: a) Leadership indicates the ability of an individual to influence others. b) Leadership tries to bring a change in the behaviour.
6. State the form of communication where official talks take place.
Ans: Formal communication.
7. What is grapevine?                    2008, 2014
Ans: The network of informal communication is called grapevine.
8. Who Proposed the “Need theory of Motivation”?     2008, 2014
Ans: Abraham Maslow
1. What is Motivation? Explain its importance.                 2012, 2013, 2014
Ans: Motivation is a process of stimulating people to action to achieve desired goal. It is psychological term. It comes automatically from inside the employees as it is the willingness to do the work. Importance of motivation within organisation is given below:
a)      Motivation sets in motion the action of people: Motivation bridges the gap between the ability to work and willingness to work. It enables the management to secure the best utilization of physical and financial resources.
b)      Motivation improves the efficiency of work performance: As motivation builds the willingness to work among the employees, the persons work with imitativeness thereby increasing their work performance.
c)       Motivation leads to stability in the employees: Motivation helps in reducing the labor turnover and absenteeism. It creates confidence among the employees and secures their loyalty to the organization.
d)      Helps in achieving the organisational goals: The motivated employees always try to achieve the organisational goal and contribute their best efforts for the realisation of organisational goals.
e)      Motivation held the managers to introduce changes: Motivated employees are always supportive and co-operative in accepting changes in the organisation.
2. State various types of needs that govern human motivation according to Maslow.     2013, 2016
Ans: Understanding and influencing the human behaviour requires understanding their needs. Need or the desire is a very important element in motivation because the employees get motivated only for their needs and if the needs are fulfilled completely then it is not possible to motivate the employees. According to Abraham Maslow, need can be classified in the following categories:
a)      Physiological needs: these needs include basic requirements for survival and maintenance of human life. The common physiological needs are food, shelter and clothing.
b)      Security needs: Once the present day physiological needs are fulfilled then the people start thinking about their future as they want to secure their future by making sure that in future also they continue to satisfy their physiological needs. Under safety and security there are two categories:
Ø  Physical security which means safety from illness, accident, fire etc.
Ø  Economic security which means having sufficient funds to meet the future physiological needs and to come out of physical security threat.
c)       Social needs: It means the need for love, affection, companionship, friendship etc. Once the people satisfy their physiological and safety needs then the social need becomes more active and to fulfill the social needs.
d)      Esteem needs: These needs are related to the respect and recognition. When the above three needs are satisfied then people start demanding respect for themselves in a group. This need is more common in higher level employees.
e)      Self actualization: This need refers to realizing or reaching to the aim of your life. Once the employee becomes what he wants to become it means satisfaction of his actualization need. For example, need to grow, sense of fulfillment.
Assumptions of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
a) Behaviour of people depends upon their need. Human behaviour can be changed or motivated by fulfilling their needs.
b) Generally the needs follow the hierarchy i.e., starting from physiological need.
3. State financial and non-financial incentives. 2013, 2017
Ans: Financial or monetary Incentives: Incentives which are directly or indirectly associated with monetary benefits are called financial incentives. Examples for financial Incentives — Pay, allowances productivity linked wage incentives, Bonus, Retirement benefits, Co partnership, commission.
Non Financial or non monetary Incentives: Incentives which are not measurable in terms of money are called non-financial incentives. Examples of Non Financial Incentives - Status, organizational climate, career advancement opportunity, job security etc.                                               
4. Discuss five monetary Incentives.      
Ans: The incentives that have a monetary and financial benefit are called financial incentives. They are:
a)      Profit sharing: It has been accepted that the profit earned by the firm is also due to the effort put by the workers. So they have a full right to receive a share in it. It is an effective incentive which satisfies the workers.
b)      Co-partnership: Under this system, employees share the capital as well as the profits. It motivates them as they share the profits too.

c)       Suggestion system: Valuable suggestions are accepted and the most valuable ones are also rewarded with cash money.
d)      Retirement benefits: Every employee wants his future to be secured. The firm provides retirement benefits, pension, provident fund, gratuity etc.
e)      Perks: various perks such as housing, car allowance foreign trips etc can be given to the managers to boost up his morale.
5. State three non monetary incentives.
Ans: (a) Job Enrichment: It is a method of motivating employee by making the task to be performed by him more interesting and challenging. The job in itself serves as a source of motivation to the employee and brings out the best in him.
(b) Suggestion System: It is a system where suggestions regarding the work procedure, environments are solicited from employees. This increase their participation & importance in the working of the enterprise and hence motivates them.
(c) Job Security refers to making the employee feel safe in his job positions. He is not threatened by transfers or removal from service and hence performs to the best of his abilities.
6. Discuss the various Principles of Directing.                     2015
Ans: Principles of Directing are given below:
a)      Maximum Individual contribution: According to this principle, directing must help every individual employee to contribute his Best towards the achievement of organizational goal.
b)      Harmony of objectives: Directing must ensure that the individual goals of employees and that of organization do not conflict with each other. Directing must aim at bringing harmony among them.
c)       Follow through: Managers must continuously review whether the instructions are being understood and followed by the employees or not.
d)      Unity of Command: According to this principle an employee should receive orders from one boss only to avoid confusion. If there are more bosses it can create problem amongst superiors.
e)      Effective leadership: A manager must possess the qualities of a good leader. He must guide his subordinates not only on work problems but also on their personal problems.
7. Mention the importance of directing.               2011
Ans: Importance of Directing is as follows:
a)      Initiate action
b)      It integrates employee’s efforts to achieve organisational goal.
c)       Means of motivation of employees to perform to their best ability.
d)      It creates balance in organisation by guiding and instructing subordinates.
e)      Facilitate change within the organisation.
8. What is Supervision? Discuss in brief the functions of a Supervisor (Importance of supervision).  2008, 10, 11, 16
Ans: Supervision means instructing, guiding, monitoring and observing the employees while they are performing jobs in the organisation. The word supervision is the combination of two words i.e., super+vision where super means over and above and vision means seeing. Supervision performs the following important functions which help the organisation to achieve objectives function of the supervisor:
a) Planning the work: The supervisor has to determine work schedule for even and steady flow of work.
b) Issuing orders: The supervisor issues orders and instructions to the workers for achieving coordination.
c) Providing guidance and leadership: The supervisors lead the workers of his department. He fixes production targets for them & provides them the necessary guidance for doing the work assigned to them.
d) Motivation: The supervisor motivates his subordinates by providing financial and non financial incentives.
e) Controlling output: The supervisor controls the performance of the workers by comparing their performance with the standards. He also takes necessary action to ensure that production is done according to the predetermined standards.
9. Define Leadership. Mention its importance? What are the essential qualities of a Leader? 2010, 2012, 2013, 2016
Ans: Leadership means influencing the behaviour of the people at work towards realising the specified goals.  It is the ability to use non-coercive (no force) influence on the motivation, activities and goals of others in order to achieve the objectives of the organisation.
Importance of Leadership:
a)      Guides and inspires employees: Leadership helps in guiding and inspiring employees to perform well and directs the potential abilities of the employees towards achieving the desired goals.
b)      Secures cooperation: Leadership secures cooperation of employees by persuading them to cooperate and work enthusiastically, confidently and diligently towards achieving the goals of the organisation.
c)       Creates confidence: By his exemplary conduct, a leader creates confidence, provides psychological support and infuses spirit of enthusiasm in the employees.
d)      Improves job satisfaction: Good working condition and support from managers in stressful situation brings job satisfaction to the employee. Managers are considered good only when they are able to motivate employees and provide them psychological support.

e)      Improves team spirit: The leadership helps in creating team-spirit by encouraging the employee to share common goal and work collectively.
Qualities of a Leader:
a)      Physical Qualities: Good physical features like height, weight, health and look of person attract an individual. Healthy and smart leader can work hard and also induce his subordinates to work hard.
b)      Judgement skills: A good leader should be able to examine problems in right perspective. His judgement and decision making abilities should be superior to others.
c)       Communication skills: A good leader should be able to communicate the goals and procedures of the organisation clearly, precisely and effectively to the subordinates.
d)      Integrity and honesty: A leader must possess high level of integrity and honesty. He must follow ethics and values then only he can expect his subordinate to be ethical and honest.
e)      Listening skills: People tend to avoid a leader who does not listen. Hence a good leader in one who can listen to other people’s problems.
f)       Initiative: A leader must take initiative to grab the opportunities. He must have courage and initiative to take bold decisions. He must take risk for the advantages of organisation.
10. Discuss various types of leadership styles.
Ans: Types of Leadership styles:
a)      Autocratic or Authoritative leadership: An autocratic leader exercises complete control over the subordinate. He centralises power in himself and takes all decision without consulting the subordinates.
b)      Democratic or Participative leadership: Under this style leader takes decisions in consultation and participation with employees. He delegates and decentralizes the authority.
c)       Free-rein or laissez faire: This style involves complete delegation of authority so that subordinates themselves take decision.
11. Define Communication. Discuss the Importance of Communication.                               2012
Ans: Communication means exchange of messages between two or more persons. These messages could mean idea, opinions, facts, information, instructions and anything that conveys a meaning. These may be conveyed in words, pictures, and actions or gestures.
In the words of Newman, Summer & Warren, “communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions by two or more persons.”
According to Keith Davis, “Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another.”
Communication is a process of understanding between the persons through exchange of ideas, messages, suggestions etc. It is important due to the following reasons:
a) It facilitates Planning: Participation of all the executives in planning is a pre requisite for getting the task done. This participation is possible only when the managers and employees interact with each other.
b) It helps in decision making. Most of the decisions are taken up by the top level management. But for decision making, right type of information is required from different persons. It is through communication that managers can identify the problems which help in taking the decisions effectively.
c) It helps in the process of motivation: Sharing of the information with the subordinate gains their confidence and willing cooperation. It increases their morale of doing work.
d) It is a basis of effective leadership: A good communicator is a good leader. Through good communication skill, the manager comes closer to his subordinates and removes the misunderstanding. Thus it is the basis of leadership.
e) Helps in smooth working of an enterprise: Smooth working of an enterprise is possible only when there is no communication gap. Through communication managers give directions for smooth functioning of organisation.
12. What is the process of Communication?
Ans: The process of communication is the inter relationship between several independent components. It consists of a chain of related actions and reaction which together result in exchange of information. In order to understand the process of communication, it is necessary to describe each of these components. A model of communication process is as follows: (i) SENDER (ii) FEEDBACK (iii) BEHAVIOUR OF RECIEVER  (iv) DECODING  (v) RECEIVING  (vi) RECEIVER  (vii) TRANSMISSION  (viii) INCODING (ix) IDEATION
13. Mention the barriers to effective communication. State the measures that can be taken to reduce the barriers to effective communication.           2013, 2015, 2017
Ans: Types of Barriers: The barriers to communication in an organization may be broadly categorized into following groups:
a.       Physical Barriers: There are the environmental factors that also reduce the sending and receiving of communication, such as physical distance, noises and other interferences difficulty arises in communicating a message.
b.      Socio-psychological or personal Barriers: There are certain socio psychological factors which restrict the free flow of communication. They are the attitude and opinions, status consciousness, ones relations with fellow workers, seniors, and junior’s etc. family background.

c.       Organizational Barriers: Organisational barriers arise due to defects in the organization structure and the communication system of an organization. Such barriers include hierarchical distance, diversion, status barriers, goal conflicts etc.  
d.      Semantic Barriers: Semantic means the relationships of signs of their reference. Semantic barrier arises from the disadvantages of the symbolic system. Symbols have got number of meaning and one has to choose any one of them according to the requirement of communication.
e.      Mechanical Barriers: Mechanical barriers include inadequate arrangement for transmission of news, facts and figures. Example poor office layout and defective procedure and the use of wrong media led to poor communication.
The barriers to an effective communication can be reduced by following measures:
a)      Clarify the Idea: Clarify in the thoughts of the sender is must for effective ‘communication’.
b)      Use of proper people language: Sender should try to make the message meaningful and understandable by using appropriate words.
c)       Message should be precise: Lengthy and unwarranted elaboration makes message less meaningful this should be avoided.
d)      Ensure proper feedback: The sender of the message should take the feedback from the receiver. Feedback of the conveyed message is an essential tool to the check that the message is duly understood. Facilities like suggestion box complaint box secret box helps in making the communication effective.
e)      Good Listener: The sender must listen to receiver’s words carefully on the other hand receiver must also listen with due attention. Attentive listening solves many problems.
14. What is formal and informal communication? State three advantages and two limitations of Formal and Informal communication.               2007, 2014
Ans: Formal Communication: A formal channel of communication is the officially prescribed route for the flow of communication. It is that route of communication which is institutionally determined and is associated with status or position of the receiver and sender.
Informal Communication (Grapevine): The informal channel of communication is that channel of communication which is not officially prescribed. It is that route which is used by workmen in an organization to maintain social (informal) relationship amongst themselves.
Advantages of formal communication:
a)      It is systematic and ensures orderly flow of information.
b)      The source of communication can be known and so the responsibility can be fixed.
c)       Formal channel cover all sub system of an organization.
Limitations of formal communication
a)      It is a slow moving process.
b)      It is conveyed in an impersonal manner.
c)       Formal channel are expensive as the messages are generally conveyed in writing.
Advantages of Informal communication
a)      It is free from formal lines of authority.
b)      Communication is faster and quicker as the message has not to pass through prescribed route.
c)       There is no channel of command and it spreads to all directions.
Disadvantages of Informal communication
a)      Grapevine often carries half truth and distorted information with an alarming rate of speed.
b)      The people in an organization are likely to be misinformed and mislead
c)       Since there is no chain of command it is difficult to fix responsibilities on a particular individual.

15. Distinguish between Formal communication and Informal communication.                                2015
Formal Communication
Informal communication
It follows formal or established line of command.
It is a based on informal relationship and arises as a result of personal social or group relations between People.
The speed of communication is usually slow.
It transmits information swiftly.

It serves organizational need.
It serves organizational as well as individual needs to socialize with others.
Its record is kept for future reference.
No record can be kept.
16. Distinguish between Leadership and Management
Leadership originates out of individuals influence
Management originates out of official powers and rights.
A leader is to motivate and guide his followers.
A manager has to plan, organize, direct and control his employees.
Mutual relationship
All the leaders are not the managers.
All the Managers are leaders.
17. Explain various forms of business communication.
Ans: Forms of Communication: Communication is the transfer of ideas and information from one person to another person. It is a bridge of meaning among people so that they can share what they fell and know. By using this bridge, a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding that sometimes separates people. To make successful communication there are different methods/ ways:
(A) On the basis of location of the receiver: Depending on the location of the receiver there are two types of communication:
1. Internal Communication
2. External Communication
1. Internal Communication: Communication among the members of an organization is known as internal communication. That is when executives and employee of an organization communicate each other within the organization then it will be labeled as internal communication.
2. External Communication: When executives and employees of an organization communicates or exchanges information with outsiders of the organization then it is called external communication.
Both internal and external communication can be subdivided into two types:
i. Formal Communication
ii. Informal Communication 
i. Formal Communication:  When information exchanged through formal organization channels by following fixed rules then it is knows as formal communication.
ii. Informal Communication: Fixed rules and system cannot prevent people from talking with each other. Thus the communication that takes place within and outside of an organization through unofficial lines can labeled as informal communication.
(B) On the basis of media of presentation: From this point of view communication can be of three types:
(1) Written communication 
(2) Oral / Verbal Communication
(3) Non-Verbal Communication
(1) Written Communication: When information, ideas, or feelings exchange in written form that is known as written communication. Written communication has its own importance and for some particular purposes it has no other alternatives.
(2) Oral / Verbal Communication: It is a process of communication through words. Verbal communication consists of words arranged in meaningful patterns. Oral communication normally takes place in a face to face situation. It may be formal or informal.
(3) Non-Verbal Communication: Communication without using words or writings known as non-verbal communication. In other words, non-verbal communication means communication through physical movements and facial expressions. Gestures, posture, eye movements, etc. are examples of non-verbal communication.
(C) On the Basis of Information flow: Depending on the flow of information there are different types of communication:
(1) Vertical Communication
(2) Horizontal Communication
(3) Cross / Diagonal Communication
(1) Vertical Communication: When communication takes place between superior and subordinates than it is known as vertical communication. Here flow of information can be of two types:
(i) Downward
(ii) Upward 
(i) Downward: it is the flow of information from higher authority to lower authority.
(ii) Upward: Here the flow of information goes to higher authority from subordinates.
(2) Horizontal Communication: This type of communication flows between employees of equal level.
(3) Cross / Diagonal Communication: Communication across the formal chain of command is known as cross or diagonal communication. In this case executives and employees of different departments and of different levels communicate each other without maintaining the official channels.
(D) Other forms of Communication:  Besides the above types of communication there can be some other forms of communication like mass communication.
Mass Communication: When communication takes place among large group of people then it can be termed as mass communication. There is no formal system for mass communication, it is situational. For different social and political purposes mass communication can takes place.
18. Distinguish between oral and written communication.
Ans: The difference between oral and written communication can be enumerated as under:
1. Ratio: According to a rough estimate, about 75% of total communication is oral whereas the rest is written.
2. Data Safety: Data and information are safe in written communication while most of information is forgotten in oral communication.
3. Nature of message: Written communication is used when the message is complex and oral communication is used for simple message.
4. Legal Aspect: From legal point of view, oral communication is least reliable and written communication is much more reliable. For example, an oral promise may not be challenged in a court in general but a written promise can be challenged.
5. Flow of information: Information can be transferred within a short period of time in oral communication but it takes more time in written communication.
6. Non verbal facilities: Oral communication can be supported by non verbal facilities like gestures, postures etc. but such a support is impossible in written communication.

7. Grammar & Accent: Oral communication required consideration for accent and pronunciation whereas written communication needs correct grammar and spelling.