Factors Influencing Dividend Decision
There are various factors which affect dividend decision. These are enumerated below with brief explanation.
a) Legal position: Section 205 of the Companies Act, 1956 which lays down the sources from which dividend can be paid, provides for payment of dividend (i) out of past profits and (ii) out of moneys provided by the Central/State Government, apart from current profits. Thus, by law itself, a company may be allowed to declare a dividend even in a year when the profits are inadequate or when there is absence of profit.
b) Magnitude and Trend in EPS: EPS is the basis for dividend. The size of the EPS and the trend in EPS in recent years set how much can be paid as dividend a high and steadily increasing EPS enables a high and steadily increasing DPS. When EPS fluctuates a different dividend policy has to be adopted.
c) Taxability: According to Section 205(3) of the Companies Act, 1956 'no dividend shall be payable except in cash'. However, the Income-Tax Act defines the term dividend so as to include any distribution of property or rights having monetary value. Therefore liberal dividend policy becomes unattractive from the point of view of the shareholders/investors in high income brackets. Thus a company which considers the taxability of its shareholders, may not declare liberal dividend though there may be huge profit, but may alternatively go for issuing bonus shares later.
d) Liquidity and Working Capital Position: Apparently, distribution of dividend results in outflow of cash and as such a reduction in working capital position. Even in a year when a company has earned adequate profit to warrant a dividend declaration, it may confront with a week liquidity position. Under the circumstance, while one company may prefer not to pay dividend since the payment may impair liquidity, another company following a stable dividend policy, may wish to declare dividends even by resorting to borrowings for dividend payment in cash.
e) Impact on share price: The impact of dividends on market price of shares, though cannot be precisely measured, still one could consider the influence of dividend on the market price of shares. The dividend policy pursued by a company naturally depends on how far the management is concerned about the market price of shares. Generally, an increase in dividend payout results in a hike in the market price of shares. This is significant as it has a bearing on new issues.
f) Control consideration: Where the directors wish to retain control, they may desire to finance growth programmes by retained earnings, since issue of fresh equity shares for financing growth plan may lead to dilution of control of the dominating group. So, low dividend payout is favoured by Board.
g) Type of Shareholders: When the shareholders of the company prefer current dividend rather man capital gain a high payment is desirable. This happens so, when the shareholders are in low tax brackets, they are less moneyed and require periodical income or they have better investment avenues than the company. Retired persons, economically weaker sections and similarly placed investors prefer current income i.e. dividend. If, on the other hand, majority of the shareholders are moneyed people, and want capital gain, then low payout ratio is desirable. This is known as clientele effect on dividend decision.
h) Industry Norms: The industry norms have to be adhered to the extent possible. It most firms in me industry adopt a high payout policy, perhaps others also have to adopt such a policy.
i) Age of the company: Newly formed companies adopt a conservative dividend policy so that they can get stabilized and think of growth and expansion.
j) Investment opportunities for the company: If the company has better investment opportunities, and it is difficult to raise fresh capital quickly and at cheap costs, it is better to adopt a conservative dividend policy. By better investment opportunities we mean those with higher 'r' relative to the 'k'. So, if r>k, low payout is good. And vice versa.
k) Restrictive covenants imposed by debt financiers: Debt financiers, especially term lending financial institutions, may impose restrictive conditions on the rate, timing and form of dividends declared. So, that consideration is also significant.
l) Floatation cost, cost of fresh equity and access capital market: When floatation costs and cost of fresh equity are high and capital market conditions are not congenial for a fresh issue, a low payout ratio is adopted.
m) Financial signaling: Dividends are the best medium to tell shareholder of better days ahead of the company. When a company enhances the target dividend rate, it overwhelmingly signals the shareholders that their company is on stable growth path. Share prices immediately react positively.