Saturday, December 03, 2016

AHSEC - Class 11: Computer Accounting and Database System

Unit – 9: Computer Accounting and Database System
Q.1. What is Computer? Mention its features.                                  2015
Ans: A computer is an electronic device or machine which performs various functions and helpful in accounting. A programmable machine that receipts input, stores and automatically manipulates data, and provide output in a useful format.
Features of computers:
1. It can store large amount of information within it and make available to use when required.
2. The computer can do various operations on the data.
3. It can perform calculation, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
4. A computer can perform logical functions and can compare two numbers or alphabets.
Q.2. What are various advantages and disadvantages of computers?      2015
Ans: Advantages of computers: 
1)      They can help us automate various tasks that you cannot do manually. 
2)      They can help us organize our data and information. 
3)      They may help our work to be a lot easier. 
4)      It saves your time. 
Disadvantages of computers: 
1)      They may distract students from their studies. 
2)      Too much time in front of monitor may adversely affect our eyesight. 

3)      They can have negative effects on our social life and interactions with other people if you do not maintain the balance between time online and offline. 
Q.3. Mention various components of computer.
Ans: Components of a Computer
1.       Input Devices: Such as Keyboard, Mouse etc.
2.       CPU: It has three components – The control unit, memory unit and the logical unit.
3.       Output Devices: Such As Monitor, Printer.      
4.       Hardware: Such as hard disk.
5.       Software: Such as system software, application software.
Q.4. What is Hardware and Software? Distinguish between them.
Ans: Software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures, and documentation that perform some task on a computer system. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code.
Hardware is best described as a device that is physically connected to the computer or something that can be physically touched. A CD-ROM, monitor, printer, and video card are all examples of computer hardware. It is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware.
Q.5. Mention five features of computerized accounting system.
Ans: Features of Computerized Accounting System:
1)      It leads to quick preparation of accounts.
2)      It ensures control over accounting work and records.
3)      Errors and mistakes would be at minimum in computerized accounting.
4)      Maintenance of uniform accounting statements and records is possible.
5)      Flexibility in maintaining accounts is possible.
Q.6. Mention various advantages and disadvantages of computerized accounting system. Or write a brief note on application of computers in accounting.
Ans: Advantages of Computerized Accounting:
1.       Better Quality Work: The accounts prepared with the use of computers are usually uniform, neat, accurate, and more legible than manual job.
2.       Lower Operating Costs: Computer is a labour and time saving devise.
3.       Improved Efficiency: Computer brings speed and accuracy in preparing the records and accounts and thus, increases the efficiency of employees.
4.       Greater Accuracy: Computerized accounting ensures accuracy in accounting records and statements. It prevents clerical errors and omissions.
5.       Minimizing Mathematical Errors.
Disadvantages of Computerized Accounting:
1.       Reduction of Manpower: The introduction of computers in accounting work reduces the number of employees in an organization. Thus, it leads to greater amount of unemployment.
2.       High Cost: A small firm cannot install a computer accounting system because of its high installation and maintenance cost.
3.       Require Special Skills: Computer system calls for highly specialized operators.
4.       Other Problems: Frequent repair and power failure may affect the accounting work very much.
Q.7. What is database and database management system? Mention its components, advantages and disadvantages.                   2015
Ans: Database & Database Management System
Database is data bank storing voluminous information about the entities within an organization and also the entities interacting with the organization.
Database Management System is the electronic data processing of information stored in the database. DBMS is “a set of programs that controls and manages creation, utilization and maintenance of database of a business organization.”
Components of Database System:
a)      Data
b)      Hardware
c)       Software
d)      Users of database
Advantages of DBMS:
1.       Reduced Data Redundancy
2.       Protection of information
3.       Greater Consistency
4.       Reduced Costs
5.       Back-up & Recovery facility
Limitations of DBMS:
1.       High setting up costs
2.       Lack of Expertise Knowledge
3.       Security Problems
4.       Hardware & Software costs due to fast obsolescence
Q.8. What is SQL?                            2015
Ans: Structured Query Language (SQL): It is a 4th generation Computer Programming language which greatly facilitates the writing of a program or application by the programmer in one tenth of time taken in older & third generation language like COBOL.
Q.9. What is Accounting Information System (AIS)? Mention its characteristics and functions.
Ans: Accounting Information system can defined as the system that gathers data describing the firm’s activities, transforms the data into information and makes the information available to both internal and external users .
Characteristics of AIS
1)      Performs necessary tasks.
2)      Adheres to relatively standardized procedures.
3)      Handles detailed data.
4)      Has a primarily historical focus.
5)      Provides minimal problem solving information.
Functions of Accounting Information System
1)      Data Gathering: The data processing system gathers data that describe the various transactions that had taken place whether internally or externally.
2)      Data Manipulation: Data manipulation operations include classification of entries, sorting of accounts and calculation like totaling of different ledger accounts.
3)      Data Storage: For the purpose of future security and control the data is stored on storage media like magnetic tapes, floppies, etc.
4)      Document Preparation: AIS produce outputs for individuals and organisations both inside and outside the firm.