Monday, June 05, 2017

IGNOU Solved Question Papers: FST - 01 (June' 2013)

BACHELOR'S DEGREE PROGRAMME (BDP)
Term-End Examination June, 2013
FST-01 : FOUNDATION COURSE IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100
Note : All questions of Section-A are compulsory. In Section-B and C give answers as per instructions given.
SECTION-A
1. Fill in the blanks : 5
(a) The entry point of solar energy in an Ecosystem is ____
(b) AIDS is caused by a ____
(c) Functional unit of Nervous system is called ____
(d) ____ amino acids are those which our body cannot synthesise.
(e) ____ is the branch of science that deals with the interaction of organisms with their environment.
2. State if the following statements are True (7') or False (F) : 5
(a) The cosmic distances are measured in miles.

(b) Fossil fuel is a renewable source of energy. False
(c) Ergonomics relates to the study of efficiency of a person in the working environment.
(d) Louis Pasteur postulated the theory of natural selection.
(e) Small pox is caused by fungus.
3. Give short answers for the following questions (Not more than 50 words) 10
(a) Major contribution of the following scientists.
(i) C.V. Raman
(ii) Albert Einstein
(b) What are persistent pollutants ? Give an example.
(c) Lead time of scientific development.
(d) List the socio-economic needs that led to the advances in techniques in the early phase of growth of cities.
(e) n-type and p-type semiconductors.
SECTION-B
Answer any eight questions. Limit your answer to 100 words for each question.
4. Describe Kepler's laws related to planetary motion. 5
5. Explain the carbon cycle with the help of a labelled diagram. 5
6. Describe the role of radio and TV in education. 5
7. Describe in brief the structural components of central nervous system. 5
8. Describe the ways to manage water resources. 5
9. Who, in the society, should decide about the purpose and scope of science ? 5
10. What is meant by balanced diet ? Why is it necessary for us ? 5
11. What do you understand by nuclear fission ? Give any one of its application. 5
12. Describe Pasteur's experiment that disproved the theory of spontaneous generation. 5
13. Write short notes (any two) : 5
(a) Vitamins
(b) Laser
Ans: Laser stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Laser light is different from ordinary light in several useful properties as it produces a very special kind of light. The difference between an ordinary light and laser light is that ordinary light produces light of many wavelengths which are all jumbled up and uncoordinated in their movement whereas laser light is made up of waves of the same wavelength which are so organized that they proceed in step with each other.
(c) Communicable disease
SECTION-C
Answer any four questions. Limit your answer up to 200 words for each question.
14. Describe the developments in science and technology in India, from the fourth century  B.C. to the seventh century A.D. 10
15.  Explain the theory of origin of universe as given by Big-Bang theory. 10
16.  Compare the state of science and technology during renaissance with that of post- renaissance period in Europe. 10
Ans. SCIENCE IN THE POST-RENAISSANCE PERIOD (1540-1760)
This period saw a new approach in science by experimenting and observing the natural science, hence bringing a “Scientific Revolution”. The Copernican model of solar system helped in improving astronomical tables. Telescope was invented by Galileo Galilei. Newton, then provided a complete scientific theory of motion of all objects, whether planets in the heavens or bodies on the earth. Magnetism was another discovery during this period. In medicine, the circulation of blood in the human body was studied. The completion of a general system of mechanics was another advancement of the 17th century. Newton gave the theory of gravitation and gave his contribution in astronomy. Optics, theory of light, and the world of biology saw a great revolution.
Why Science Grow up in Europe?
Science grew over the period because science and religious were compromised and scientists started working with freedom. People started working together. We will in the next topic discuss the industrial revolution and the period thereafter.
The Industrial Revolution (1760-1830) and after
The Revolution in Science and Technology brought a great transformation of the means of production called as Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution brought about a great deal of transformation and development in the industry. Many mechanical gadgets were invented for spinning and weaving thus reducing manual work. Steam engine was another major invention during this period. Means of communication like telegraph was another major discovery. Another aspect of this industrialization was increase in production.
 17. Briefly discuss the impediments to the growth of science in medieval India. 10
Ans. Science and Technology in Medieval India
During the medieval times in India, the greatest Indian contribution was in the use of decimal system. The Indians also tried to calculate latitudes of some places which were based on the timings of the eclipse at different places.
Achievements in Science: Achievements in scientific areas like astronomy and medicine continued from the Delhi Sultans as well as from Mughal Emperors and their nobility. Besides using astronomy in making calendars, it was also used for casting horoscopes. The kings of the Mughal period made many astronomical observations which in turn led to the construction of large sized observational instruments for fixing time and determining latitudes. In the field of geography, advancement was made in the form of World Atlas in which maps of different countries were prepared.
In chemistry, zinc was isolated; brass which is an alloy of copper and zinc was developed. Copper vessels were developed. Soldering and tin-coating of copper and brass were other important features in the area of chemistry.
In medicine Unani (Greek) system of medicine became popular. Hakims and vaids worked for the emperor. Surgery and orthopedics were regularly practiced.
From the study above we learnt that science in medieval India was at a slow pace as the learning was restricted only to a small elite group.
Technical Innovations and Inventions: Technology was very advanced during the medieval period. Some technical devices like gearing, belt-drive, weaving, paper manufacturing, distillation, architecture, military technology, and metal screws, ship-building and in some areas of agriculture were invented or improved in the medieval India.

18. Describe in detail the life-story of a star. 10
19. What do you understand by recycling? How recycling of wastes improves resource utilization? 10
Ans: Meaning: Some of the materials once used need not go wastes, these can be reused. The process through which the waste resources are again made is known as recycling.
Utility of Recycling
1. Scraps & used metals: Scrap metal is produced in large quantities in mills & factories. Old used metal of descended vehicles, machine, aircraft’s ship, building etc. can be melted & recycled for useful purposes: used aluminum utensils, for example, can be collected, melted & shaped into new utensils.
2. Waste water: Domestic & municipal waste water is rich in organic nutrients. If these kind of water is made fuel from decease carrying gums and poisonous elements, it can be used for irrigation of fans, gardens & other vegetation growing of algae, a wild plant that flows in floating masses in rivers, takes etc serves a double purpose. If cleans the water of pollutants like phosphates & nitrate that act as militants for these plants & these plants can be utilized for the production of bio-gas.
3. Solid waste: Solid waste in some cases can be a resource, in; Delhi the sewage treatment plants produces cooking gas. Fermentation of wastes such as cattle day, human execute, garbage aquatic weeds like algae & water hyacinth, produces biogas which can be used for variety of purpose. Stag, a waste product left where the metal has been extracted from its ore can be powdered & added to cement for construction.

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