Monday, June 05, 2017

IGNOU Solved Question Papers: FST - 01 (June' 2012)

BACHELOR'S DEGREE PROGRAMME
Term-End Examination June, 2012
FST-01 : FOUNDATION COURSE IN SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY
Time : 3 hours
Maximum Marks : 100
Note : All questions of section-A are compulsory. In sections - B and C, give answers as per instructions given.
SECTION-A
1. Fill in the blanks : 5
(a) The decimal system of numbers was discovered in ____ period.
(b) Deficiency of Vitamin A causes ____
(c) Cloning of animals has been possible due to advances in ____
(d) IQ measures a person's ____

(e) The non- conventional renewable source of energy that can be trapped for domestic and industrial use is ____
2. State if the following statements are True (T) or false (F). 5
(a) Nuclear wastes are persistent pollutants.
(b) Chicken pox is water born disease.
(c) Use of steam powered engine led to the Industrial Revolution.
(d) The mass of resulting nucleus is the same as the sum of masses of fusing nuclei, in nuclear fusion.
(e) The INSAT series of satellites are used only for telecommunication.
3. Give short answers for the following questions (in not more than 50 words) : 10
(a) State two innovations made in the field of technology in Medieval India.
(b) Differentiate between quasars and pulsars.
(c) Give the applications of optical fibres in medicine and telecommunication
(d) Name two areas where we do not depend on imported technology.
(e) What are the salient features of mixed, and relay-cropping systems ?
SECTION-B
Answer any eight questions. Limit your answer to 100 words for each question :
4. "The Theories of science are influenced by the general intellectual atmosphere and  ideas prevailing in the society". Justify the statement with the help of suitable examples. 5
5. State five factors that cause water pollution. 5
6.Explain the term ergonomics. List two examples where application of ergonomics can improve the output. 5
Ans: Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
How Ergonomics helps in improving human life:
Human factors and ergonomics is connected to how the user, their equipment and their environments interact with each other. In normal everyday language, ergonomics concerns itself with making you perform better and think better, walk/ run/ sprint better. It is also a proactive health measure as well a reactive one. What that basically means is that it can help to prevent health issues such as poor posture leading to chronic back pain, as well as being able to ease health issues after they have struck already. This is how ergonomics can help you to make a difference in your lives today, even if you are already suffering from ergonomic related problems.

7. Describe two evidences that support the evolution of homo sapiens. 5
8. What do you understand by Big Bang theory ? Give one evidence in support of this theory. 5
Ans: According to the big bang theory, the universe began by expanding from an infinitesimal volume with extremely high density and temperature. The universe was initially significantly smaller than even a pore on your skin. With the big bang, the fabric of space itself began expanding like the surface of an inflating balloon – matter simply rode along the stretching space like dust on the balloon's surface. The big bang is not like an explosion of matter in otherwise empty space; rather, space itself began with the big bang and carried matter with it as it expanded. Physicists think that even time began with the big bang. Today, just about every scientist believes in the big bang model. The evidence is overwhelming enough that in 1951, the Catholic Church officially pronounced the big bang model to be in accordance with the Bible.
Evidence for the Big Bang theory:
1. Redshift of Galaxies: The redshift of distant galaxies means that the Universe is probably expanding. If we then go back far enough in time, everything must have been squashed together into a tiny dot. The rapid eruption from this tiny dot was the Big Bang. 
http://www.schoolsobservatory.org.uk/sites/default/files/astro/m51lt_s.jpg
The spiral galaxy - M51
9. What factors were responsible for the breakdown of feudal economy? 5
10. Why is social forestry important for a farmer ? 5
Ans: Social forestry is the forestry by the people and for the people, whose main purpose is to fulfill the needs of forestry which are - manure, food, fruit, fibre and productive capacity. As a whole social forestry's main objective is to reconstruct the ecosystem and conserve the environment. It is important to the farmers because it:
(i) Cooperate soil conservation and to prevent spoiling the productive capacity of soil.
(ii) Increase fuel availability and to increase the food modification by increasing fruit production.
(iii) Encourage plantation of large and beautiful trees which provide shadow to enhance the natural beauty and to plant all around the cultivation field to increase production.
(iv) Encourage environment conservation by plantation and to create general consciousness regarding environment conservation.
(v) To enhance the natural beauty of the villages and cities by plantation.
11. Mention the salient problems associated with modern agriculture. 5
12. Explain the principle of remote sensing method for exploring natural resources. 5
Ans: Remote Sensing Method: In this method, the information from the remote areas is collected using cameras carried by an aeroplane to photograph large areas of land. Cameras are mounted on satellites to obtain pictures of clouds, water, forests, etc. radio waves are picked up by the detectors in the aero plane or satellites. The density of vegetation, size and shape of plants and trees can be found using this method. These waves also provide information about the minerals and oil under the surface.
Types of Resource Maps: Several maps are prepared as discussed below:
  1. Soil Maps: As the name suggests it shows different types of soils and their composition.
  2. Mineral Maps: It shows the location of various kinds of mineral deposits.
  3. Hydrological Maps: It gives information o depth of water table.
  4. Snow-cover Maps: It gives information of snow packs on high mountains.
  5. Resource Mapping: Resource mapping is done to locate different resources like water, minerals, vegetation, etc., at the correct location. It is used for development of agricultural, water development and other transportation facilities.

13. What are the consequences of deforestation? 5
Ans: Consequences of Deforestation:
1. Climate Imbalance: Deforestation also affects the climate in more than one ways. Trees release water vapor in the air, which is compromised on with the lack of trees. Trees also provide the required shade that keeps the soil moist. This leads to the imbalance in the atmospheric temperature further making conditions for the ecology difficult. Flora and fauna across the world are accustomed to their habitat. This haphazard clearance of forests has forced several of these animals to shift from their native environment. Due to this several species are finding it difficult to survive or adapt to new habitats.
2. Increase in Global Warming: Trees play a major role in controlling global warming. The trees utilize the green house gases, restoring the balance in the atmosphere. With constant deforestation the ratio of green house gases in the atmosphere has increased, adding to our global warming woes.
3. Soil Erosion: Also due to the shade of trees the soil remains moist. With the clearance of tree cover, the soil is directly exposed to the sun, making it dry.
4. Floods: When it rains, trees absorb and store large amount of water with the help of their roots. When they are cut down, the flow of water is disrupted and leads to floods in some areas and droughts in other. 
5. Wildlife extinction: Due to massive felling down of trees, various species of animals are lost. They lose their habitat and forced to move to new location. Some of them are even pushed to extinction. Our world has lost so many species of plants and animals in last couple of decades.
SECTION-C
Answer any four questions. Limit your answer upto 200 words for each question
14. Discuss the need for scientific approach in overall planning. In this approach what factors should be taken into account while planning a large dam or an electric power plant ? 10
15. Describe the stages in the life cycle of a star. 10
16. What are endocrine glands ? List major types of endocrine glands. Give functions of any five of them.    1+4+5=10
17. What measures are being taken in India to encourage research in science and technology  and their application in industry ? 10
18. List various modes of spread of diseases. Discuss any two of these modes along with methods of prevention.   10
Ans: Various modes of spread of diseases:
Germs enter our body through different mediums like air, contaminated food and water, insects and other carriers. Let us now study some of these diseases.
Air-borne Diseases:  Air carries number of germs which can cause diseases. Even cough and cold can be transferred from one person to another. One sick person can thus infect a lot of others.
Water-borne Diseases: Contaminated water is another reason for causing diseases like diarrhea, dysentery and typhoid. Germs multiply in the gut of a person and come out in the faces. These infected faces then pass on to others through water. In villages this infected water is used for bathing, washing and drinking. The hands which also carry germs can infect a healthy person when later touch the object touched by a healthy per- son.
Food-borne Diseases: If the person who is cooking is infected, the germs will reach the food and the people who eat it will get infected. Typhoid and other stomach infections are caused in this way. Contaminated fruits, vegetables and food which are exposed to germs and flies pick up bacteria which then multiply and cause infection.
Diseases Spread by Insects or other Carriers: Mosquitoes can cause malaria, dengue fever and other deadly diseases. They suck the blood of infected person and transmit them to others when they bite them. Rats, houseflies, lice, cockroaches, etc. also carry germs of various diseases.
Prevention of Diseases:
Diseases are caused due to various types of microbes. Microbes present in the environment gain entry into the body via air, water and food they multiply in the body and make the person sick. The sick person releases them in greater number in the environment thus infecting many people. Our body has a defense system which is capable of fighting against the germs. Modem drugs assist own defense system. Disease results from a disturbance in the balance between man and his environment. Improvement in the health status of our people requires clean drinking water, adequate living conditions and proper sanitation.
19. How do living organisms maintain a normal external and internal structure and environment in spite of change in outside surroundings ? Illustrate with an example. 5+5

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