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Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Tools of Information Technology

Unit – 2: Tools of Information Technology
Tools of Information technology and Information and Communication Technology
1. Telegram: A written message supplied to the department of telecommunication, which in turns sends, the message by telegram.
2. Telegraph: A system of sending message by telegraph using both wires and electricity or radio.
3. Telegraphy: With reference to telecommunication, telegraphy is the process of sending message by telegraph. Telegraph wire by which telegraph messages are sent.
4. Telepathy: A quite different style of communication of ideas, though directly from one’s mind without the use of audio or visual.
5. Telephone Directory: Directory is a specially prepared type of book containing the names and address of a particular group. Telephone directory is a list of names, addresses and telephone numbers of a group of all the people in a particular area who have telephones and the arrangement is according to alphabetical order.

6. Telephone exchange: A centrally-controlled system through which telephone calls are directed. The use of telephone exchange is necessary in case of non-STD and in the absence of direct dialing operation.
7. Teleprinter: Teleprinter is a specialized type of typewriter used in communication system.
8. Teletype: Teleprinter is a specialized type of typewriter used in communication system.
9. Telex: Sending of messages through teleprinter is called telex.

10. Telecom: Telecom signifies inter-communication system used to communicate with one another, especially to talk between two rooms, officer, etc. by means of a telephone or a radio system.
Some of the tools are explained below
A) Printing Press: The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The printing press was invented around 1450 A.D. Until the 19th century Gutenberg’s printing technology remained largely unchanged. However, in the early 1800’s the development of continuous rolls of paper, steam-powered presses meant that the invention kept up with the times as being an effective way to mass produce many documents. Also the material for printing was changed to use iron instead of wood. All of these changes added to the efficiency of the printing press.
Long before Gutenberg invented the press. The Chinese had begun using ink, block printing and movable clay type technologies, all of which are combined together in the Gutenberg printing press.
The printing press works as follows: Each letter was carved into the end of steel punch, which was then hammered into a small piece of copper called a blank. The copper impression was inserted into a mold and a molten alloy made of lead, antimony and bismuth was poured in. The alloy cooled quickly and the resulting reverse image of the letter attached to a lead base could be handled in minutes. The width of the lead base varied according to the letter’s size, therefore the base of an “I” would not be nearly as wide as the base of a “w”. The resulting alloy blocks were put together either by hand or by a linotype machine (see linotype). The resulting line of type was inserted into a frame. When all of the rows of type were in the frame the printer could put them in the press, ink them and print as many copies as required. Obviously type setting was a slow process so very often this process was only used for books or newspapers for which there was a strong demand.

If the printing press wasn’t invented then the cultural and industrial revolutions wouldn’t have taken place. The introduction of the printing press also changed the way the church operated. For the first time many people could read the bible by themselves, in their native language. This meant a dramatic downturn in the numbers of people that went to church. Also people began to question the authority of the church, as there was nothing in the bible about having to pay the church taxes, which was common at that time. Also the spread of words and other people’s idea began to spread a lot faster after the invention of the printing press. Also more people could read the availability of books and documents. It marked Western culture’s first viable method of disseminating ideas and information from a single source to a large and far-ranging audience.
B) Radio Transmission: Radio waves transmit music, conversations, pictures and data invisibly through the air, often over millions of miles every day and every time in different ways. Even though radio waves are invisible and completely undetectable to humans, they have totally changed society. Whether we are talking about a cell phone, a baby monitor, a cordless phone or any one of the thousands of other wireless technologies, all of them use radio waves to communicate. Even things like radar and microwave ovens depend on radio waves. Things like communication and navigation satellites would be impossible without radio waves, as would modern aviation – an airplane depends on a dozen different radio systems. The current trend toward wireless Internet access uses radio as well and that means a lot more convenience in the future.

C) Telephone: During the 1870s, two well known inventors both independently designed devices that could transmit sound along electrical cables. Those inventors were Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray. The telephone commonly referred to as a phone, is a telecommunications device that transmits and receives sound, most commonly the human voice. Telephones are a point-to-point communication system whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to one another. It is one of the most common household appliances in the developed world and has long been considered indispensable to business, industry and government. The word telephone has been adapted to many languages and is widely recognized around the world.
The telephone has gradually supplemented the telegraph as the principle system of telecommunications. Not only does the telephone service as an instrument for reproducing articulate speech and other sounds at a distance through the medium of electric waves but its circuits carry telegraph telephoto and television signals and data in a form that can be fed directly into processing devices. In effect telephone circuits enable computers at remote points to communicate with each other. As a consequence telephone systems have become an integral part of modern telecommunication system, intern telecommunication systems have become an integral part of IT.
D) TELEX: Telex was designed to provide a fast and efficient means of exchanging written messages between organisations using the telephone network. Since it was started in 1932, the telex service has been constantly updated and now offers many of the features associated with modern telephone communications, such as an on-line directory, automatic dialling, and last-number redialling. The telex service is a system in which each user has a unique code number. A telex message would be sent as follows:
(1) The user types or dials the number of the terminal for which the message is intended.
(2) Once connected, the message is then typed-a copy of the message being produced by both the sending and receiving terminals.
(3) Proof that the call was made to the correct telex terminal is given by the exchange of an ‘answerback' code.
The main advantage of the telex system is its wide acceptance within the business community, with a large number of users worldwide. The limitations of telex are that it is based on a five-bit code that allows only a restricted character set, and all messages appear in upper case (capital letters) only. These limitations are, however, outweighed by its large number of users and the ease with which telex enables organisations to communicate. Telexes might be sent from a prospective customer to a supplier to confirm an order, from the head office of a company to a regional office to advise on company policy, or from a supplier to an overseas customer informing it of the dispatch of an urgent spare part, for example. Although telex has been replaced by fax for many inter-company communications, it is still widely used for international communications.

E) Telegraph: The world telegraph comes from Greek words Tele which means a far and graphein meaning write. The method of communication employing electrical signaling impulses produced and received manually or by machines. Telegraphy as communication techniques uses essentially a narrow frequency band and a transmission rate adapted to machine operations. TEL uh graf was the first method used to send messages by electricity. Tapping outwards letter by letter with a telegraph sent at one time most telegraph message. Early equipment devised by Samuel F. B. Morse consisted of a mechanical transmitter and receiver. Operators soon learned to handle messages faster by using simple manual keys, and audible sounders. The telegraph revolutionized long distance communication. Until its invention, messengers served as the chief means of communication at a distance. In 1790s Claude Chappe, a French inventor established a system visual telegraph is semaphores that relayed messages across France. In 1820, Hans Christian Oersted of Denmark showed that an electric current could produce a magnetic field that an electric current can produce a magnetic field that will turn a compass needle. Using the electromagnetic techniques three scientists namely William F. Cooks, Charles Wheatstone and F. B. Morse developed successful electrical telegraphs. Today, machines telegraph, messages. The facsimile machine has a keyboard, and the operators sends a message by typing it. A printing device a receiving it automatically types it on the paper.
21st century has been defined by application of and advancement in information technology. Information technology has become an integral part of our daily life. According to Information Technology Association of America, information technology is defined as “the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems.” Information technology has served as a big change agent in different aspect of business and society. It has proven game changer in resolving economic and social issues. Advancement and application of information technology are ever changing. Some of the trends in the information technology are as follows:
A. Semiconductor Technology: Enormous improvements in the performance of integrated circuits and cost reductions brought about by rapid miniaturization have driven much of the advances in IT. A related trend is the migration of computing into other devices and equipment. This is not a new trend – automobiles have been major users of microprocessors since the late 1970s – but as semiconductor chips become more powerful and less expensive, they are becoming increasingly ubiquitous. Also, new capabilities are being added to chips. These include micro electromechanical system (MEMs), such as sensors and actuators and digital signal processors that enable cost reductions and extend IT into new types of devices.
B. Information Storage: Disk drives and other forms of information storage reflect similar improvements in cost and performance. As consequence, the amount of information in digital form has expanded greatly. Estimates of the amount of original information (excluding copies and reproductions) suggest that information on disk drives now constitutes the majority of information. Increasingly, much of this information is available on-line.  Computers, reflecting the improvements in their components, have shown similar dramatic improvements in performance. Due to improvements in semiconductors, storage and other components, price declines in computers (adjusted for quality) have actually accelerated since 1995.
C. Networking: The third trend is the growth of networks. Computers are increasingly connected in networks, including local area networks and wide area networks. Many early commercial computer networks, such as those used by automated teller machines and airline reservation systems, used proprietary systems that required specialized software or hardware (or both).
The growth in networking has been enabled by rapid advances in optical networking. In 1990, a single optical fiber could transmit about 1 billion bits per second; by 2000, a single fiber could transmit nearly 1 trillion bits per second.
D. Cloud Computing: One of the most talked about concept in information technology is the cloud computing. Clouding computing is defined as utilization of computing services, i.e. software as well as hardware as a service over a network. Typically, this network is the internet. Cloud computing offers 3 types of broad services mainly Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS).
Some of the benefit of cloud computing is as follows:
1)      Cloud computing reduces IT infrastructure cost of the company.
2)      Cloud computing promotes the concept of virtualization, which enables server and storage device to be utilized across organization.
3)      Cloud computing makes maintenance of software and hardware easier as installation is not required on each end user’s computer.
Some issues concerning cloud computing are privacy, compliance, security, legal, abuse, IT governance, etc.
E. Mobile Application: Another emerging trend within information technology is mobile applications (software application on Smart phone, tablet, etc.) Mobile application or mobile app has become a success since its introduction. They are designed to run on Smartphone, tablets and other mobile devices. They are available as a download from various mobile operating systems like Apple, Blackberry, Nokia, etc. Some of the mobile app are available free where as some involve download cost. The revenue collected is shared between app distributor and app developer.
F. User Interfaces: User interface has undergone a revolution since introduction of touch screen. The touch screen capability has revolutionized way end users interact with application. Touch screen enables the user to directly interact with what is displayed and also removes any intermediate hand-held device like the mouse. Touch screen capability is utilized in smart phones, tablet, information kiosks and other information appliances.
G. Analytics: The field of analytics has grown many folds in recent years. Analytics is a process which helps in discovering the informational patterns with data. The field of analytics is a combination of statistics, computer programming and operations research.
The field of analytics has shown growth in the field of data analytics, predictive analytics and social analytics.
Data analytics is tool used to support decision-making process. It converts raw data into meaningful information.
Predictive analytics is tool used to predict future events based on current and historical information.
Social media analytics is tool used by companies to understand and accommodate customer needs.
The every changing field of information technology has seen great advancement and changes in the last decade. And from the emerging trend, it can be concluded that its influence on business is ever growing, and it will help companies to serve customers better.
Introduction to Media Convergence

Media convergence has become a vital element of life for many people. With the development of technology in  different  platforms and operations such as television, Internet and mobile communication, audiences have had both a bigger choice of media and a life which media technologies has made easier. Media Convergence is the phenomenon involving the interlocking of computing and information technology companies, telecommunications networks, and content providers from the publishing worlds of newspapers, magazines, music, radio, television, films, and entertainment software. Media convergence brings together the “three Cs”—computing, communications, and content.
The ACMA defines media convergence as ‘the phenomenon where digitization of content, as well as standards and technologies for the carriage and display of digital content, are blurring the traditional distinctions between broadcasting and other media across all elements of the supply chain, for content generation, aggregation, distribution and audiences’
Simply, Media convergence is defined as the technological merging of content in different mass media. Media convergence is a theory, and subsequently a practice, in communications where every mass or niche medium eventually merges with each other to the point that they are indistinguishable from each other, creating a new medium from the synthesis, due to the advent of new communication technologies. With the advent of new medium over the Internet and the mobile, media convergence is now an increasing reality in the India media and entertainment industry. 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Media Convergence
Advantages of Media Convergence
1. Media for the Consumers: Like any other business, the purpose of the media is to earn profit and the only way they can do so, is by providing the viewers with whatever they want. So something that is popular in media stays on, while others are just chucked out. Since people are responsible for what appears in the media, it is assumed that quality media wins. 
2. Minimal Government Control: If the media is consolidated, and it is people who make choices of what they want to see, the government control is minimal.
3. The Advantage of Converging Technologies: Due to converging technologies the media houses are fueled by the desire to reach consumers in different and often innovative ways. This allows the user to get a phone, TV and internet from a single company, and pay a single competitively priced bill, instead of three different bills. The competition among the few media houses also ensures better and lower prices for the consumers.

4. Diversification: With media convergence there is lesser investment risk. Therefore, a bad phase by a subsidiary of the media conglomerate can be counterbalanced by more profitable ventures. Meanwhile, the pro consolidation voice also argues that with diversification there are a number of TV channels, movie productions, newspapers, radio or the Internet offered by companies. Thus every niche is catered for, and every voice is heard.
5. Direct Participation of Public: Due to media convergence, people can directly provide feedback to the media. Media are increasingly evolving into a better direction. In addition, people become more free to choose the information, without having to be bound by the agenda setting theory is designed in traditional media. As well, the public can participate as a conduit of information to the media.
6. Citizen Journalism: The presence of public spaces in the media convergence which then led to the innovation of citizen journalism. Media convergence requires direct feedback from the public that the media follows the growing trend toward becoming better.
7. Bigger Choice of Media: Media convergence has become a vital element of life for many people. With the development of technology in  different  platforms and operations such as television, Internet and mobile communication, audiences have had both a bigger choice of media and a life which media technologies has made easier.
8. Lowe Cost: With the development of technology, the cost of products and software was lowered. Instead of having different news crews for every medium, one converged media operation can use the same reporters and staff to produce stories for, television, telecommunication and Internet mediums.

Disadvantages of Media Convergence
1. Lack of Competition: One of the biggest fears in the minds of those opposing media convergence is that the large media houses will silence alternate views, which can then lead to a decline in democratic viewpoints. It is staggering to imagine that only a handful of media houses cater to billions of viewers. 
They are responsible for controlling all aspects of the industry, from creation and production to delivery. This has led to lack of meaningful content and alternate viewpoints in the media. So, every channel you tune into expresses the same opinions. There is marked censorship of content, especially if it is too controversial. The lack of diversity is a direct result of monopoly in the market, and little or no healthy market-based competition. 
2. Money vs. Public Interest: The lack of adequate competition also means that media houses now, run after money instead of serving public interest. Since every media house is now ensured of a large global audience, the focus shifts from providing quality services to getting more money. Innovative or risky ideas are now squelched in favor of 'tried and tested' methods. Moreover, with less competition, the media houses charge more and, due to the lack of alternatives, the consumer has to pay.
3. Focus on Advertisers: The commercially driven media is loyal to their sponsors and advertisers, not to the viewers. There is minimal interest in journalism and public affairs, and more concentration of lucrative genres that do quite well.
4. Under-representation of Women: There is a vast under-representation of women and people of color in media. Even though women consist of 51 % of the Indian population, they hold less than 7 percent of all TV and radio station licenses. There is also a lack of accurate coverage and diverse programming related to women and minorities in the media.
5. Biased Political Views: Large media houses are also blamed for their biased political views. Media companies are known to support candidates and political parties. When donations of this magnitude are made, it affects and influences the content in the media as well.
6. Less Local News: With the monopoly of large media businesses, the local news takes a backseat. With cross-owned media there was a marked production of total news produced locally.
7. Health Risk: It is believed that new media devices such as cell phones can cause serious health risk. Such as headaches, ear aches, blurring of vision can cause cancer.
8. Security Risk: High security risk Content can be stolen, copied and redistributed with the proper consent or authorization. Added to that identity theft and compromise of personal information such as credit card details.
9. Lack of Credibility: It makes it harder to locate credible sources as most of new media devices such as the internet and social networking sites such as YouTube often times does not filter the information on these site.