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Sunday, December 03, 2017

AHSEC - Class 12: Political Science Notes (Unit - 1)

UNIT – 1

1. What is meant by Cold War?
Ans. The cold war is referred to the competition, the tensions and a series of confrontations between the United States and the Soviet Union backed by their respective allies.
2. When did cold war begin?
Ans. The cold war began in the year 1945.
3. Write the full form of NATO.
Ans. The full form of NATO is North Atlantic Treaty organization.
4. What is Warsaw Pact?
Ans. The eastern alliance was known as Warsaw pact which was led by the Soviet Union.
5. What was the principal function of Warsaw Pact?
Ans. The principal function of Warsaw Pact was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
6. Correct the sentence: The US was committed to the ideology of socialism.
Ans. The U.S was committed to the ideology of capitalism.
7. Fill in the blank:
(a) The end of the Second World War was the beginning of ____.
Ans. Cold war

8. Mention the period of the cold war era.
Ans. The period of cold war era was from 1945 to 1991.
9. Write ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.
(a) Cold war was a competition between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies.
Ans. Yes.
10. What was the principal function of Warsaw Pact?
Ans. To counter NATO
11. Write the full form of NIEO?
Ans. New International Economic Order
12. What do you mean by CENTO?
Ans. Central Treaty Organization
13. What is ‘Deterrence’?
Ans. To prevent or discourage
14. What is LOCs?
Ans. Line of Control
15. Write the full form of NAM?
Ans. Non Aligned Movement
16. What was the Cuban Crisis?
Ans. Cuban crisis was a high point of cold war occurred in 1962.
17. What is UNETAD?
Ans. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
18. Name the two Super Powers?
Ans. Soviet Russia and United States of America
19. Does NAM stand for isolation?
Ans. No, NAM doesn’t stand for isolation.
20. In which year USA dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima?
Ans. 1945
21. What is LDCs?

Ans. Least Developed Countries.
1. What is meant by allied and axis powers of the Second World War?
Ans. Allied powers of the Second World War refers to those countries who won the world war. These Allied powers include countries like the U.S., Soviet Union, Britain and France.
      Axis power of the Second World War was refers to the countries who were defeated in the war. These axis powers includes countries like the – Germany, Italy and Japan.
2. How did Second World War come to an end?
Ans. The Second World War comes to an end when the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, causing Japan to surrender.
3. Name the two super powers that emerged after the Second World War.
Ans. The two super powers which emerged after the Second World War were the US and the Soviet Union.
4. Name the two places where atom bombs were dropped in the Second World War.
Ans. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the two famous places where atom bombs were dropped in the Second World War.
5. Why did the superpowers need small allies?
Ans. the superpowers entered into military alliances with smaller countries due to the following reasons:
a)      Smaller states were helpful for the superpowers in their gaining access to vital resources such as oil and minerals.
b)      Access to locations or territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops.
c)       Access to locations from where they could spy on each other.
6. What is meant by western alliance and eastern alliance?
Ans. Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US is called Western Alliance. On the other hand those countries of Eastern Europe which joined in the soviet camp are called Eastern Alliance.
7. Name two arms control agreements signed by the two superpowers. [2013]
Ans. The two arms control agreements signed by the two superpowers are – Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) and Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NNPT).
8. When and where the first Non-aligned Summit was held?
Ans. The first Non-Aligned Summit was held in Belgrade in 1961. This summit was attended by number of African and Asian countries.
9. What was the declaration of NATO States?
Ans. The declaration was that the NATO states pledged the mutual defence of any member states who would be attacked and constitutes a system of collective Security.
10. Does NIEO was Just an ideal that never became an order?
Ans. NIEO was not just an idea, it became an order.
11. What do you mean by logic of deterrence?
Ans. Logical of deference mean the presence of nuclear weapons by both super powers. It means the two super powers behaved in a more national manner which aimed at avoidance of another big war.
12. Write the root cause of the beginning of the Cold War?
Ans. The root cause of the beginning of cold war was rivalry between U.S.A and former U.S.S.R.
13. Why the smaller states were helpful to the Superpowers?
Ans. The smaller states were helpful to superpowers became:
a)      Gaining access to vital resources such as oil and minerals.

b)      Access to location or territory from where the superpower could launch their weapons and troops.
14. What is the Allied Forces and Axis Power?
Ans. Allied powers of the Second World War refers to those countries who won the world war. These Allied powers include countries like the U.S., Soviet Union, Britain and France.
      Axis power of the Second World War was refers to the countries who were defeated in the war. These axis powers includes countries like the – Germany, Italy and Japan.
15. Identify three countries which belong to communist bloc?
Ans. Unites States of Soviet Russia, Hungary and Poland.
16. Is non-alignment a negative policy?
Ans. No, non-alignment is not a negative policy. It was a policy of keeping away from military alliances of big power.
17. What was the root cause of the beginning of the Cold War?
Ans. The root cause of the beginning of the cold war was rivalry between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
18. Name any four countries which were decolonized following the end of the Second World War?
Ans. India, Indonesia, Afghanistan and Cuba
19. When and where 20th NATO Summit was held?
Ans. NATO Summit was held in Chicago, U.S.A. in 2012.
20. Name the countries that joined the Soviet Block?
Ans. Poland, Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, Albania, Czechoslovakian.
1. Discuss the role of NAM during the cold war era.
Ans. NAM played on significant role in the cold war era. The role of NAM can be mentioned the like way –
a)      The policy of Non-Alignment soughs to promote peace and laid emphasis on peaceful settlement of disputes by the states.
b)      Nam was entrusted with the tasks of social and economic reconstruction which could be done only in a world free from war and tension.
c)       The newly independent countries were aware of the danger of imperialism. So they wanted to come together and bring world peace.
d)      The significant role played by NAM was to maintain peaceful coexistence between nations, condemnation of racial discrimination etc.
1. Discuss the role of India as a leader of NAM during the cold war era. [2013]
Ans. The main features of the policy of non-alignment pursued by India during the early period were as follows –
a)      India tried to keep away from the power politics of two blocks due to fear that it could lead to disaster on vast scale. Instead India tried to follow policy of peaceful co-existence, co-operation and friendship.
b)      The policy of non-alignment was not based on the principle of isolationism or inaction. On the country it was a positive policy designed to promote national security and international peace.
c)       The policy of non-alignment sought to promote peace and laid emphasis on peaceful settlement of disputes by the states.
d)      India opposed military and security alliances and refused to get drawn into these alliances because it restricted the freedom of the country to act independently. Further these alliances generated hatred and distrust in the international sphere and posed a serious threat to world peace.
2. Write a note on Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty?
Ans. Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty was signed in 1968 by five big countries which possessed nuclear weapons-such as U.S.A, U.S.S.R, Britain, France and People’s Republic of China. Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty was signed with the objective to prevent further proliferation of nuclear weapons in the world. This treaty came into effect on 3 October 1972.

3. What was the realisation behind the origination of New International Economic Order (NIEO)?
Ans. New International Economic order refers to an economic system to reduce the gap between developed countries and under-developed countries of the world.
      The idea of New International economic order originated for sustainable and equal economic development of the least developed countries. The United Nations conference on Trade and Development brough out of report in 1972 to answer New-International Economic order
      New International Economic order is a means of attaining economic development and political independence for the least developed countries. This motive of Non-alignment gradually changed the nature of NAM and by 1970’s Non-alignment become an economic pressure group.
4. What was India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold War Era? Is this policy helped India’s Interest?
Ans. The whole idea of Non-Alignment Movement initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru not only served international interest but also served India’s interest directly through the following ways –
a)      First, non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions and stances that served its interests rather than the interests of the super powers and their allies.
b)      Second, India was often able to balance one super power against the other. If India felt ignored or unduly pressurized by one super power, it could tilt towards the other. Neither alliance system could take India for granted or bully it.
However, the policy of NAM was criticized on a number of counts. They are –
a)      First, India’s non-alignment was said to be unprincipled. In the name of pursuing its national interests, India often refused to take a firm stand on crucial international issues.
b)      Second, it suggested that India was inconsistent and took contradictory postures. Having criticized others for joining alliances, India signed the Treaty of Friendship in August 1971 with the USSR for 20 years. This was criticized by outsiders as India virtually joined the Soviet Bloc.
5. The Cold War has produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments?
Ans. It is a hard fact that the cold war produced an arms race as well as arms control. Mutual suspicious between the two super powers led them to arm themselves to the tests and to constantly prepare for war. Both the super powers considered huge stocks of arms necessary to prevent wars from taking place. However, both the super powers understood that war might occur in spite of restraint. Either side might miscalculate the stock of arms in the possession of the other side. Moreover, super power might misunderstood the intentions of the other side. Besides, there can be a nuclear accident. Hence both the super powers i.e. U.S.A and U.S.S.R. decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons. In 1961 Soviet Union an United States made a joint statement in general Assembly. Both the countries agreed for negotiation towards total disarmament. Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963) was signed by the foreign ministers of the U.S.A, U.S.S.R and U.K. In 1968 the Non-proliferation Treaty was signed. But India refused to sign thin treaty on the ground that it was discriminatory in nature. The threshold Test Ban Treaty was signed on 3rd July 1974 by the two super powers. After these treaties many more treaties were signed by the two super powers to limit their arms.
6.  What are the main features of Cold War?
Ans. Following are the main features of the Cold War:
a)      Military rivalry between the two superpowers started during the Second World War. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by USA in August 1945 was a vital event which led to the end of the Second World War.
b)      The Principle of ‘deterrence’ guided the rivalry between the US and the USSR. Deterrence theory is a military strategy which came to prominence during the Cold War.
c)       The possession of nuclear weapons by the two superpowers was one of the major hallmarks of the Cold War.
d)      While the European continent was relatively peaceful during the Cold war, the arena of conflict had shifted to the third world countries during the same period.
7. Explain the emergence of two power blocs.
Ans. The emergence of two power blocs is –
1)      The US and the USSR were keen to expand their zone of influence globally especially in Europe and it resulted in the world being divided into two alliance system.
2)      The smaller states in the alliance soon began receiving weapons, technology, economic and development aid. On March 12, 1947 U.S. President Harry S. Truman stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.
3)      The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc with the eastern European countries it occupied, annexing some and maintaining other as satellite states.
8. Explain the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Ans. Cuba had received diplomatic and financial support from the Soviet Union and Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union decided to concert Cuba into a Russian military base. In September 1962, the Cuban and Soviet governments began to build military and missile bases in Cuba, from which the Soviet Union could have the ability to strike most of the continental United States.
      The Cuban Missile Crisis represented the high point of the Cold war and fortunately it never escalated into a ‘hot war’. This crisis is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to turning into a nuclear conflict.
9. Explain the factors of formation of NAM.
Ans. There are several factors which have contributed to the formation of NAM:
a)      The 1960s marked the period of decolonization and as many as 16 new African countries became members of the UNO.
b)      Growing political cooperation between countries of India, Egypt, Indonesia, Ghana and Yugoslavia;
c)       Emergence of visionary leaders like Nehru, Tito and Nasser provided new direction to countries of the developing world;
d)      The tension of the Cold War and issues related to arms race were too expensive to be borne by these new independent countries.
10. What are the challenges features of NAM?
Ans. NAM is a unique organization which faces challenges from various quarters.
1)      In terms of membership, NAM is probably one of the biggest organizations. NAM represents nearly two-thirds of the United Nations’ members and 55% of the world population, particularly countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World. In spite of being one of the largest organizations, only developing countries have become part of this movement. Majority of the issues in world politics is often dictated by US and its allies and the developing world have little say on important matters.
2)      While NAM stood for non-alignment with any of the superpowers, it does not refer to isolationism or neutrality. Neutrality strictly means staying away from war and conflict.
3)      NAM is not a homogeneous movement and serious differences have existed amongst its members. Additionally, some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members.
4)      The relevance of NAM in the post cold war era continues to be debated among political and academic circles.
11. Explain the principles of NIEO.
Ans. The following principles of NIEO are –
a)      Full and effective participation on the basis of equality of all countries in solving of world economic problems is the common interest of all countries.
b)      The right of every country to adopt the economic and social system that it deems the most appropriate for its own development and not to be subjected to discrimination of any kind as a result;
c)       Full permanent sovereignty of every State over its natural resources and all economic activities.
d)      Ensuring that one of the main aims of the reformed international monetary system shall be the promotion of the development of the developing countries and the adequate flow of real resources to them;
e)      The need for all States to put an end to the waster of natural resources, including food products;

f)       The need for developing countries to concentrate all their resources for the cause of development.