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Sunday, December 10, 2017

AHSEC - Class 12: Political Science Notes (Unit - 12)

UNIT – 12

1. Name the full form of POSCO.
Ans. The full form of POSCO is
2. There were two models of development: one was liberal capitalist model, what was the other?
Ans. The other model of development is socialist model.
3. When was the Planning Commission set up?
Ans. The Planning Commission was set up in 1950.
4. What is FYP?
Ans. F.Y.P means five year plans.
5. When was the Planning Commission set up?
Ans. The First Five Year Plan started from 1st April 1951.
6. Name a large scale project which was included in the First Five Year Plan?
Ans. The largest scale project included in the first five year plan was Bhakra Nangal Dam.
7. Who was the founder of Indian Statistical Institution?
Ans. P.C. Mahalanobis was the founder of Indian Statistical Institute.
8. On which country had India to be dependent for food crisis?
Ans. India has to be dependent upon United States of America for food crisis.

9. Name of full form of AMUL?
Ans. The full form of AMUL is Anand Milk Union Limited.
10. Who is called the ‘Milkman of India’? [2013]
Ans. Dr. Verghese Kurien is called as the ‘Milkman of India’.
1. Why did the Orissa Villagers protest against POSCO plan?
Ans. The Orissa villagers protested against the POSCO plan because –
a)      It threat ended the rights and liberties of the tribal people.
b)      It displaced them permanently from their home and livelihood.
2. What do you mean by left and right party?
Ans. Left party refers to these who are in favour of poor and downtrodden and support government policies for the benefited of the poor section.
      On the other Right Party refers to those who are in favour of free market and free competition. It is an approach in which the government doesn’t interfere in the matter of economy.
3. What is meant by development?
Ans. Development means increase in national economy. It also means change coupled with economic growth and socio-economic progress. It refers to increasing Capacity to make rational use of natural and human resources for socio-economic progress.
4. With which was the modernization associated?
Ans. Modernization was associated with development. Modernization was linked with nations of growth, material progress and scientific nationality. It led the countries in the grouping system as developed, developing and under developed.
5. What was Bombay plan?
Ans. A section of the big industrialists got together in 1944 and drafted a joint proposal for setting up a planned economy in the country. It was called Bombay Plan. The Bombay Plan wanted the state to make major initiatives in industrial and other economic investments.
6. Government budget is divided into two: name these two types of budget?
Ans. The Government Budget is divided into two. These two types of budget are –
a)      Balanced Budget.
b)      Unbalanced Budget.
7. In which year was the First Five Year plan started?
Ans. The First Five Year Plan was started in the year 1951. K.N. Raj, a young economist asked India to hasten stonely.

8. Which special subjects were focused through the ‘Kerala Model’?
Ans. Through the famous “Kerala Model”, subject has been focus like – Education, Health, Land Reform, Effective food distribution and poverty alleviation.
9. What is meant by ‘mixed economy’?
Ans. Mixed economy is an economy having elements of both capitalist and socialist economy. In this system full fledge importance is given to the public sector but limited importance is given to the private sector.
10. What kind of policy did India adopted for ensuring food sufficiency?
Ans. For ensuring food sufficiency, India adopt some policies like giving importance to most developed agricultural areas, offering high yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidized prices, which was the beginning of ‘Green Revolution’ era.
11. State two objectives of planning?
Ans. Two objectives of planning is to ensure development and program.
12. State any two advantages of planning?
Ans. Ensure equal opportunity of development and justice
13. In which year Planning Commission was set up and who was the first chairman of planning commission?
Ans. The Planning Commission was set up in 1950. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first chairman of Planning Commission.
14. When was India’s New Economic Policy launched? Who was its chief architect?
Ans. India’s New Economic Policy was launched in 1991. The chief architect of India’s New Economic Policy was Dr. Manmohan Singh.
15. What were the major outcomes of Planned Economy?
Ans. (i) Reduces the wastage of time and resources and thus facilitates the optimum use of the country’s natural and human resources.
      (ii) Helps the country to advance and progress and thus, increases the per capital income.
16. Which Indian thinker emphasised the planning in India and when?
Ans. In Jawaharlal Nehru emphasised the necessity of planning in India in 1920’s.
17. Why “Planning Commission” is called extra-constitutional body?
Ans. Planning Commission is called an extra constitutional body because it is not created made the provision of constitution.
18. Who had prepared the Ten Year Plan and why?
Ans. S.
19. What is plan budget?
Ans. Planned Budget is that budget which spent on a five year basis as per the priorities fixed by the plan.
20. Write few lines about Distributive Justice?
Ans. Distributive Justice emphases on providing or distributing equal justice to the people.
1. What is Green Revolution? How did it begin?
Ans. In 1960’s, India was facing a food crisis due to many reasons. India government decided to make India self-sufficient in food. Hence the mid 1960’s, the traditional variety seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are simply called Green Revolution. As a result of Green revolution, area under improved seeds has gone up from about 15 million hectares during 1970-71 to nearly 75 million hectares in 1995-96. The major benefits of the Green revolution were experienced mainly in northern and north-western India. Unprecedented enthusiasm has prevailed among farmers in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and Western U.P. for the new wheat variety seeds and a situation developed in which, the demand for seeds by farmers exceeded the supply.
      Positive consequences of Green Revolutions are: Green Revolution has led to the concentration of wealth in the hands of top 10% of the rural population. Green Revolution had widened the gap between poor and small farmers and rich landlords and Green Revolution has proved beneficial to the medium category peasants, because they could receive the advantage of mediation between small farmers and rich landlords.
2. Discuss the differences between Green Revolution and the White Revolution?
Ans. Green Revolution and White Revolution are the two famous revolutions regarding the production of wheat and milk. They can be differ in following points –
1)      Green revolution is the record production of wheat according to the plan of new agricultural strategy. While White Revolution is the record production of milk.

2)      Green Revolution took place in some states like Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh. But While Revolution took place in Anand a town in Gujarat.
3)      M.S. Swaminathan was the father of Green Revolution. On the other hand Verghese Kurien was the father of White Revolution.
4)      Green Revolution enhanced agricultural productivity by use of high yielding variety seeds fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, power etc. White Revolution enhanced the production of milk production through organizing milk-cooperative societies.
3. Write the main objectives of Planning in India?
Ans. The main objectives of planning in India –
a)      Raising national income and per capita income.
b)      Bringing self-sufficiency in food.
c)       Bringing rapid industrialization.
d)      Increasing agricultural production.
e)      Raising the standard of living.
4. What is the role of Planning Commission in the socio-economic development of the country?
Ans. Planning is the systematic regulation of a purposeful activity. It is an invaluable aid to policy and helps to achieve national goals and is a continous process. Planning is a rational process and concerns itself with the proposals for the future with the evolution of alternate proposals and the methods with which these proposals may be achieved.
      The Planning Commission was set up in India in 1950. The functions of Planning Commission are listed below –
1)      To make an assessment of the material, capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel and investigate the possibilities of augmenting such resources as are found to be deficient in relation to the nation’s requirements.
2)      To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced utilization of the country’s resources.
3)      Determination of priorities, define the stage in which the plan should be carried out the propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage.
4)      To indicate the factors which are tending to retard economic development and determine the conditions which in view of the current social and political situation, should be established for the successful execution of the plan.
5)      To determine the nature of the machinery this will be necessary for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the plan in all its aspects.
6)      To appraise from time to time the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the plan and recommend the adjustments of policy and measures that such appraisal may show to be necessary.
7)      To make such interim or ancillary recommendations as appear to it to be appropriate either for facilitating the discharge of the duties assigned to it; or an a consideration of the prevailing economic conditions, current policies, measures and development programmes; or on an examination of such specific problems as may be referred to it for advice by Central or State Government.
5. What is private sector? How does it differ from public sector?
Ans. (1) Private Sector means the economic sector where priority is given to private production.
          (2) In Private Sector Capitalist own the resources and means of production. But in Public Sector private property is abolished and means of production are owned by the state.
          (3) In Private Sector there is competition, among the different private parties. On the other hand in Public Sector there is no possibility or limited possibility for competition and improvement of quality.
          (4) Efficiency can be maintained in private sector but the efficiency level goes down in public sector.
          (5) Corruption is generally low in Private Sector but due to departmental dominated work in Public Sector corruption is more prevalent.
1. When was the planning commission set up in India? Discuss its scope.
Ans. In India the planning commission was set up in the year 1950. It covered a wide spread scope in the planning and development process of India.
      Its main scope is –

a)      To make an assessment of the material, capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel and investigate the possibilities of augmenting such resources as are found to be deficient in relation to the nation’s requirement.
b)      To formulate a plan for the most effective and balanced utilization of the country’s resources.
c)       To determine the nature of the machinery this will be necessary for securing the successful implementation of each stage of the plan in all aspects.
d)      Determination of priorities, define the stage in which the plan should be carried out the propose the allocation of resources for the due completion of each stage.
e)      To appraise from time to time the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the plan and recommend the adjustments of policy and measures that such appraisal may show to be necessary.
2. What do you mean by Land Reforms? Discuss the provisions of land reforms?
Ans. It is not possible to tackle the technical problems without institutional reforms. Institutional policies can increase the agricultural productivity. After independence our government had adopted various institutional policies. The main institutional policies or land reforms are as under –
1)      Abolition of Zamindars System: After independence landlords and intermediates had the right on 40% of the land of country. This bold act not only released land from the clutches of a class that had little interest in agriculture, it also reduced the capacity of the landlords to dominate politics. Attempts at consolidation of land – bringing small piece of land together in one place so that the farm size could became viable for agriculture.
2)      Ceiling of land holding: This system determines the maximum limit or ceiling on cultivable land for a person or a family. Surplus land distributed among the landless. Government implemented the laws with the objective to determine ceiling on land in different states in India.
3)      Tenancy Reforms: In this process the tenants who worked on someone else’s land were given greater legal security against eviction. Windows minor, military men or disabled could get their land cultivated by the tenants.
4)      Bhoodan Movement: This movement was launched by Vinoba Bhave in 1951. It is one of the great events in the land reforms of independent India. An appeal is made to the people for land donation by Bhoodan Movement. In this way the acquired land is distributed among the landless farmers.
3. Explain the food crisis which appeared in Bihar during 1965 and 1967. Give a brief account of its.
Ans. In 1960’s the agricultural situation were from bad to worse in all over the world. The rate of growth of food grain production in the 1940’s and 1950’s was barely staying above rate of population growth. Between 1965 and 1967, seven droughts occurred in many parts of the country. It was in Bihar that the food crisis was most acutely felt as the state faced a near famine situation. The food shortage was significant in all districts of Bihar, with a district producing less than half of their normal output. Five of these districts, in fact, produced less than one-third of what they produced normally. Food deprivation subsequently led to acute and widespread malnutrition. It estimated that the calorie intake dropped from 200 per capital per day to as low as 1200 in many regions of the state. Death rate was 34% times higher in 1967. Food prices also were quite high. Prices of wheat and rice were two time or more than that of normal prices in prosperous Punjab and other North Indian states. The government had “zoning’ policies that prohibited trade of food across states; which reduce the availability of food in Bihar dramatically. In such situation, the poorest sections of the society suffered the most.
4. What do you mean by Planning? What is its importance for development?
Ans. Planning can be defined as systematic regulation of an activity which is undertaken by the government to set up priorities and reduce the wastage of time and resources.
      Planning is very much important to ensure development of a country. Planning is an instrument of bringing desired socio-economic change as well as progress. Planning is important to achieve distributive justice which means to establish a just society with development for all section of people the society.
5. What are the objectives of planned development?
Ans. The objectives of planned development are as follows –
a)      Rapid rate of growth to increase national income,
b)      Reduction of income inequalities among different sections, classes and regions.
c)       Removal of concentration of wealth and resources in fewer hands and use them for the wider benefit of society.
d)      Removal of poverty.
6. What is Plan Holiday?
Ans. ‘Plan Holiday’ is the gap between the two five year plans. This is due to the change in government and government’s lack of clarity about development, goals, strategies etc., that five-year plan were not formulated or even subject to review and change by the succeeding governments.
7. State two objectives of 1st Five year plan.
Ans. The two objectives of 1st five year plan are –
1)      Rapid development of agriculture as to achieve food and self-sufficiency in the shortest possible time.
2)      It focused on land reforms as the key to the country’s development.
8. State two element of rapid industrialization (2nd Five Year plan).
Ans. (1) The rapid development of heavy and capital goods industries in India, mainly in public sector. Three steel plants were set up in the public sector within the second plan period.
          (2) In this plan government imposed substantial tariffs on imports to protect domestic industries.
9. Explain public and private sector.
Ans. Both these models have positive and negative points of their own. Indian planners wanted to take good points from both the systems. Therefore, emerged the model of mixed economy which means prevalence of public, private and joint sectors side by side within one system
10. Explain the major outcomes of planned development.
Ans. (1) The partial success stories such as those of Kerala and West Bengal notwithstanding, the practice of unsecured tenancy, mostly oral whether taking the form of share-cropping or the payment of fixed produce or cash rent, continued in India on a large scale.
          (2) Land reforms did not take place effectively in most parts of the country.
          (3) Ultimately the political power remained in the hands of the land owning classes.
          (4) The big industrialists were at the advantageous position. As a result of which poverty did not reduce much. Therefore, to meet the desired end was just impossible.
11. What was the “Operation Barga”?

Ans. The Left front Government in West Bengal came to power in June 1977 launched the famous ‘Operation Barga’ in July 1978 with the objective of achieving the registration of the share-croppers, so that they could then proceed to secure for them their legal right. A significant aspect of the Operation Barga experiment in West Bengal was that, like in Kerala, an effort was made to mobilize the support of the rural poor and especially the targeted beneficiaries (the bargadars) and their active participation was sought in the implementation of the reform measure.