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Sunday, December 10, 2017

AHSEC - Class 12: Political Science Notes (Unit - 10)

UNIT – 10
1. When was the Indian Constitution enforced?
Ans. The Indian Constitution was enforced in
2. Why did the leaders of many other countries decide that India could not afford to have democracy?
Ans. The leaders of many other countries decided that India could not afford to have democracy because it got independence in some difficult circumstances. They said that national unity was first priority and that democracy will introduce differences and conflicts.
3. When was the election commission formed in India?
Ans. In India, the election commission was formed in January 1950.
4. Who was the first Chief Election Commissioner?
Ans. Mr. Sukumar Sen was the first Chief Election Commissioner.
5. Why did the election commission cancel the first voter list?
Ans. The election commission cancels the first voter list nearly 40 lakhs women were not recorded in the list.
6. Name the full form of E.V.M.
Ans. The full form of E.V.M. is Electronic Voting Machine.
7. In which year was the first general election held?
Ans. In 1952, the first general election was held.
8. How many terms did the congress get majority to form government?

Ans. The congress get majority to form government for three consecutive terms.
9. What percentage of the votes did the congress obtained in 1952 Lok Sabha Election?
Ans. In 1952 Lok Sabha Election congress obtained 45% of votes.

10. When was the congress socialist party formed?
Ans. The congress socialist party was formed in 1934.
11. Who was the founder of P.R.I?
Ans. Plutarco Elian Calles was the founder of P.R.I.
12. Mention two countries in which their constitutions have permitted only a single party?
Ans. In countries like China and Cuba, their constitutions have permitted only a single party.
13. Who was the Chairman of the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly?
Ans. Dr. Bhim Rao Ramji Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly.
14. In which country did the Bolshevik Revolution take place?
Ans. Bolshevik Revolution was take place in Russia.
15. When was Bharatiya Jana Sangh formed?
Ans. Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed in 1951.
16. Who was the founder president of Bharatiya Jana Sangh?
Ans. The founder President of Bharatiya Jana Sangh was Shyama Prasad Mukherjee.
17. When was the Swatantra Party formed?
Ans. Swatantra Party was formed in August 1959.
18. What did the Swatantra Party want from the government?
Ans. The Swatantra Party wanted from the government to be less and less involvement in controlling the economy.
19. What will happen to the grass when two buffalos fight?
Ans. When two buffalos fight, the grass under them gets crushed.
20. Choose the correct option to fill in the blanks:
(a) The first general election in 1952 involved simultaneous elections to the Lok Sabha and ____. (The President of India/State Assemblies/Rajya Sabha/The Prime Minister)
Ans. State Assemblies
(b) Towards the end of ____ (1985/1990/1995/2004) the election commission started using the Electronic Voting Machine.
Ans. 1990
(c) The congress socialist party was formed within the congress in ____ (1934/1948/1952) by a group of young leaders who wanted a more radical and egalitarian congress.
Ans. 1948
21. Under what conditions did the Indian Party System Originate?
Ans. Indian Party System originates during the freedom struggle.
22. When was the Congress party founded in India and by whom?
Ans. The Congress party was founded in 1885; it was founded by A.O. Hume.
23. Who led the Indian National Congress in the first general election?
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru led the Indian National Congress in the first general election.
24. Mention on characteristic of the Party System in India?
Ans. Indian Party System is characterized by absence of strong opposition party.
25. When was the Indian Constitution enforced?

Ans. Indian Constitution was enforced in 26th January, 1950.
26. In 1957 which party formed the Government in Kerala?
Ans. The Communist Party formed government in Kerala.
27. In which year Socialist Party was formed?
Ans. In 1934 Socialist Party was formed.
28. In which party lies the roots of Bharatiya Janata Party?
Ans. The roots of Bharatiya Janata Party lied in Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
29. In which year the Era of one party dominance began?
Ans.  In 1952 the era of one party dominance began
30. Which Indian Party is the oldest party in Asia?
Ans. Indian National Party is the oldest party in Asia.
31. Who was Deen Dayal Upadhaya?
Ans. Deen Dayal Upadhaya was the founder member of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
32. Who was the Founder of Independent Labour Party in India?
Ans. B.R. Ambedkar was the founder of Independent Labour Party in India.
33. In which year was the Nagpur Session held?
Ans. In 1920 Nagpur Session was held.
34. Fill in the blanks:
(a) One of the guiding principles of the ideology of the Swatantra Party was ____.
Ans. Individual freedom
(b) The party that won the second largest number of Lok Sabha seats in the first election was the ____.
Ans. Communist Party
1. On which date was his draft of the Indian Constitution signed and when it came into force?
Ans. The draft of the Indian Constitution was signed on 26th November 1949 and it came into force on 26th January 1950.
2. Why did socialists criticize the congress?
Ans. The socialists criticized the congress for favoring capitalists and land lords and for ignoring the workers and peasants.
3. What is the full form of R.S.S.? Write the name of the founder president.
Ans. The full form of R.S.S. is Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The founder president of R.S.S. is
4. When was the C.P.I. party formed? Name one personality who led this party?
Ans. The C.P.I party was formed in the early 1920’s, taking inspiration from the Bol Shevik Revolution in Russia. 
5. When was the Election Commission of India is formed? Who was the first election commissioner?
Ans. The election commission was formed in January 1950. Sukumar Sen was the first election commissioner.
6. The two things of a candidate were carried in the ballot paper, what were these two things?
Ans. The two things of a candidate carried in the ballot paper were the name of the candidate and the party to which they belong.
7. When did the control Govt. dismiss the Communist government in Kerala and under which article of the constitution?
Ans. In 1959 the congress government at the centre dismissed the communist government in Kerala under Article 356 of the constitution.

8. Name the two countries which have experienced of the dominance of one party?
Ans. Countries like Syria and Cuba have experienced of the dominance of one party.
9. In which year first general election was held in India?
Ans. In India the first general election was held in the year 1952.
10. Which period of election had been described as the congress system?
Ans. The period 1952-1962 of election had been described as the congress system.
11. When was the Bharatiya Jana Sangh Formed and who was the founder President of the Party?
Ans. Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed in 1951. Deen Dayal Upadhaya was the founder president of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
12. When was Congress Party founded in India and by whom?
Ans. Congress Party was founded in 1885 and A.O. Hume was the founder of the party.
13. Write names of two leaders of Socialist party?
Ans. Jay Prakash Narayan and Asoka Mehta
14. Mention the Era of one party dominance in India?
Ans. From 1952-1967
15. Mention any two ideologies of Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
Ans. Two ideologies of Bharatiya Jana Sangh –
a)      One country and one nation.
b)      Integrated and Modern India.
16. Give the names and symbols of any two National parties in India?
Ans. Party                                                           Symbol
1)      Indian National Congress              Hand
2)      Bharatiya Janata Party                   Lotus.
17. List the basic requirements to hold free and fair election in country like India?
Ans. Two basic requirements for free and fair election –
a)      To prevent the corrupt and criminals from contesting elections.

b)      To aware the voters about their political rights and duties.
18. Who were the main leaders of the C.P.I?
Ans. A.K. Gopalan, S.A. Dange, P.C. Joshi Ajoy Ghosh.
19. Under what conditions did the Indian party system originate?
Ans. Indian Party System was originated in the Conditions of national movement.
20. List two states where congress was not in power at some point of time during 1952-67 election.
Ans. Tamilnadu and Kerala
21. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The first general election in ____ involved simultaneous elections to the Lok Sabha and ____.
Ans. 1952, Assembly election
(b) In ____ the Congress Government at the Centre dismissed the Communist Government in ____.
Ans. 1957, Kerala
1. What kind of step did the election commission of India take for holding election?
Ans. The election commission of India takes some important steps holding election in India. These steps are like –
a)      Election commission wanted to conduct a free and fair election in the country, but which need delimitation or drawing the boundaries of electoral constituencies.
b)      It also prepared the electoral rolls, or the list of all the citizens eligible to vote.
c)       When the first draft was published it was discovered that the name of 40 lacks women were not recorded in the list. The election commission refused to accept these entries and ordered a revision if possible or deflection if necessary.
d)      The election commission emphasized on some special method or voting. For this reason they trained over 3 lacks officers and polling staff to conduct the election.
2. Who was B.R. Ambedkar? For whom did he fight?
Ans.  Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the leader of anti-case movement and founder father of Independent labour party. He was the chairman of drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly. He became the minister in Jawaharlal Nehru’s first cabinet after independence.
      For his whole life Dr. Ambedkar fought for the Dalits, the labours and the people belonging to the scheduled castes.
3. When was the Congress Party founded in India and by whom? [2013]
Ans. A.O. Hume founder the Congress Party in 1885.
Historical Background: The Congress has passed through different phases from being a platform of loyalist reformers, as a forum of enlightened professionals for the articulation of demands and for negotiating greater participation of the Indians in the legislatures and local bodies. Under Gandhi, it became a multi-class mass movement. After independence, the Congress became a dominant ruling party.
4. Write any four reasons for the emergence of the coalition era in the Indian Democratic system.
Ans. The factors for the emergence of coalition government in India –
1)      End of Congress dominance.
2)      Rising regional political aspiration.
3)      Presence of Communal Political party.
4)      Increasing strength of the dalits and other backward class political parties.
5. Write any four features of Indian Party System?
Ans. Four characteristics of Indian Party System are –
a)      Multi-Party System.
b)      Emergence of regional political party.
c)       One party dominance
d)      Lack of strong opposition political party.
6. Write any four reasons for domination of one party system in India.
Ans. Four reasons for domination of one party system in India –
1)      Indian National Congress as the first and oldest political party enjoys supremacy over other parties.
2)      Indian National Congress party is the largest party having wide organized party network all over India.
3)      Indian National Congress led the freedom struggle and won independence for India.
4)      There is lack of well organized strong opposition political party in India.
7. “Opposition is a divided house in India” – Explain.
Ans. An affective, responsible and responsive opposition is the hallmark of a democracy and the lifeblood of a competitive party system. A descriptive note on role of opposition in a democracy is cited below –
a)      Criticize the ruling party: The opposition acts like a restraining force, as it represents legitimate dissent. It is as much the duty of the opposition to criticize, as that of the government to govern. The opposition criticizes and exposes the mistakes, shortcomings, failures, lapses etc. of the ruling party and thus acts like a necessary corrective to it.
b)      Ventilates the grievance of the people: The opposition helps to ventilate the grievances of the people and helps the government to know their views. In this way, they help in the formulation of policy. By drawing the attention f the government to situations where there are grave violations.
c)       Expression of views: Several committees are appointed by the legislature for its better working. In these committees the opposition gets adequate representation and also a chance to scrutinize and express its views on various issues. Many a times, they oppose issues and ventilate their viewpoint. They thereby also educate the people.
d)      Act as alternative form of government: The opposition also acts like an alternative government or as the government in waiting when the government collapse before its five year term. If the opposition expresses its inability to do so, then there would be mid-term elections.
1. Explain briefly the history of elections held in 1952.
Ans. The first General Election is held in 1952. Which is regarded a landmark in India. The history behind it is like –
a)      The election was held in a very competitive situation – there were on an average more than four candidates for each seat.
b)      The level of participation was encouraging more than half the eligible voters turned out to vote.
c)       When the results were declared these were accepted as unfair even by the losers.
d)      In the first general election more than half of Indian population was illiterate; still the election took place smoothly.
e)      The Indian experiment proved the critics wrong who though that Indian democratic experiment would prove to be a failure.
f)       Moreover a free and fair election was conducted and woman got a chance to vote too.

It became a milestone in the history of democracy all over the world. It was no longer possible to argue that democratic election could not be held in conditions of poverty or lack of education. It proved that democracy could be practiced anywhere in the world.
2. Explain the Congress dominance in the first three general elections.
Ans. The Indian National Congress had unique political accomplishments. The Congress dominated the Indian political scenario from 1947-1967. The factors responsible for its dominance are –
1)      Legacy of National Struggle: The Congress Party had inherited a vast and enriched legacy from the nationalist struggle. It gave its goodwill political mileage. Party leaders like Nehru and Shastri were quite popular for spending years in jail and other deprivations they endured. The legacy of nationalist movement helped in forging coherence and unity in the wake of party’s internal pluralism.
2)      Grassroot Organization: Congress was the only grassroot organization which existed at the time of existence. Its federal structure had the basis of internal democracy. This helped it to resolve internal feuds and cement party cohesion. Internal party elections served as means of legitimizing party leadership and training party workers in the skill of political competition. It helped in rewarding the movable members.
3)      Adjustment to local circumstances: The congress was able to dominate because it was able to local circumstances. The erstwhile landed aristocracy completed for power within the Congress. The internal democracy in the party and electoral gains of Congress helped Congress to adjust to changes in local balance of power. Further the broad base allowed Congress even to incorporate successful opposition leaders along with its fold. It served as a channel to inform about local conditions to party hierarchy.
4)      Attract New Supporters: With the expansion of development role of the state, resources which could be disbursed to party members also increased. The growing pool of resources and opportunities enhanced the ability of Congress to adjust conflicts among its members. The party reaped benefits of a virtuous cycle in which the electoral gains provided it access to politico-economic resources to garner new supporters.
5)      Limited role of opposition: From 1947 to 1967 we see a very limited role played by the opposition political parties. There were a number of reasons why the opposition was not able to unite against the Congress. Some of the main reasons were the internal differences within the socialist fold, reservations of the CPI, presence of dynamic leaders like Nehru in the Congress, the inability of the opposition to unite and to provide a collective leadership in the absence of one widely accepted leader in their midst, lack of clarity of thought and approach among them and also their appeal being limited and confined to certain pockets.
6)      Management: The congress possessed strong managerial skills. It could easily tackle the differences that cropped up within the various factions of the Congress Party. The rivalries and differences were dealt with great technique and patience. This allowed the Congress to remain as a grand centrist party which facilitated the party to win elections term after term.
3. When was the Bharatiya Jana Sangh formed? Discuss its ideology.
Ans. Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed in 1951 with Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee as its founder president. The main ideologies are –
a)      The Jana Sangh party emphasised the one of one country, one culture and one nation.
b)      It believed that the country could become modern, progressive and strong on the basis of Indian culture and traditions.
c)       The party called for a reunion of India and Pakistan in Akhand Bharat.
d)      The party was in forefront of the agitation to replace English with Hindi as the official language of India and was also opposed to the granting of concessions to religious and cultural minorities.
e)      The party was a consistent advocate of India developing nuclear weapons especially after China carried out its atomic tests in 1964.
In the 1950s Jana Sangh remained on the margins of the electoral politics and was able to secure only 3 Lok Sabha seats in 1952 election and 4 seats in 1957 general election in Lok Sabha. The support base centred around the urban areas of Hindi speaking states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. The party’s initial leaders included Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Deen Dayal Upadhaya and Balraj Madhok. The Bharatiya Janata Party traces its roots to the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
4. Find out the ideological difference between Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Communist Party of India.
Ans. Differences between Socialist parties and Communist parties are –
1)      The Socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism whereas Communist party worked mainly within the fold of the Congress party.
2)      The Socialists believed in peaceful constitutional methods, while Communist party believed in peaceful and violent methods.
3)      The Socialists criticized the congress for favoring capitalists and landlords and ignoring the working class and farmers. The Communist party believed in the welfare of workers and peasants.
Differences between Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party –
1)      Bharatiya Jana Sangh believed in the ideology of ‘one country, one nation, one culture and one national ideal; on the other hand, the Swatantra Party believed in equality of opportunity for all people without distinction of religion, caste, race etc.
2)      Bharatiya Jana Sangh a stands for the nationalism of basic and defence industries, but it does not favour the policy of taking more and more industries under state ownership and control, because it believes that this tendency is harmful both for democracy and economic development. Swatantra Party stands for the principle of maximum freedom for the individual and minimum interference by the state.

3)      Jana Sangh favours to follow the policy of non-alignment with the two power blocs as also of non-involvement in international affairs not directly affecting India. Swatantra Party was critical of the policy of non-alignment and advocated close ties with U.S.A.