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Sunday, December 10, 2017

AHSEC - Class 12: Political Science Notes (Unit - 19)

UNIT – 19

1. “As the decade of the eighties our----politics”. Explain the five developments.
Ans. (1) Congress system means dominance of Congress for two decades. But the most crucial development of this period was the defeat of the Congress Party in the elections held in 1989.
        (2) The Mandal Issue started with the National Front Government’s decision to implement the recommendation of Mandal Commission that 27% of jobs in the government services and public undertakings be reserved for candidates belonging to the ‘backward castes’.
        (3) The New Economic Reforms were announced in 1991 as the structural adjustment programme. These changes first became visible in 1991 and radically changed the direction that the Indian economy had pursued since independence.
        (4) The elections were announced from 19th May, one the round of voting was over when tragedy again struck the ill-fated family of Indira Gandhi. Rajiv Gandhi was blown to pieces when he was in an election campaign tour in Tamil Nadu.
        (5) Ajodhya Issue was started with the demolition of the disputed structure of Ajodhya known as Babri Masjid in December 1992.

2. Write a note on Janata Party.
Ans. The Janata Party came into being as a result of the merger of four parties – The Congress (O), Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Bharatiya Lok Dal and Socialist Party in 1977. This party contested the election of March, 1977 and gave a thundering defeat to the Congress Party. The Janata Party was the result of the merger of different opposition parties which had suffered a lot during the days of ‘emergency’.

3. Write a note on ‘Lok Dal’.
Ans. A new party, first known as the Janata (Secular) and then as Lok Dal came into being in 1979. It broke away from the Janata Party. It stands for all what the Indian National Congress has been striving for with a distinct emphasis on protecting and promoting the interests of the rural population in particular. A stern rural orientation constitutes the hall mark of this party.
4. Write a note on Communist Party of India (CPI).
Ans. During the Chinese attack on India, a sharp difference developed among the Indian communists. Ultimately it resulted in the split of the CPI into – The CPI and the CPI (M). The pro-China faction of the communist denounced the pro-Soviet members of the party as revisionists and formed the CPI (M) in 1964. It claims itself as the only party that stands firmly and consistently for ‘scientific socialism’. It is hostile towards the CPI. It denounces the CPI whenever it can.
5. Explain the causes of the growth of regional parties.
Ans. There are various factors which are responsible for the growth of regional political parties.
1)      Utter Neglect of a Particular Region: The third factor which led to the growth of regional parties is utter neglect of a particular region by the all India political parties.
2)      Ambitions of Politicians: Another factor which promotes regional parties is that many politicians aspire for becoming ministers and chief minister. This could happen with the formation of regional parties.

3)      Safeguard to Language and Culture: Sometimes regional parties are constituted to safeguard the language and culture of the people of a particular region. It is an easy way in India to earn popular support.
4)      Failure of All-India Parties: The all-India parties have failed to solve the regional problems. They also adopt discriminatory attitude very often. So, they have lost the confidence of the people. This has helped the growth of regional parties.
5)      Protection of Communal Interest: Regional political parties are also formed to protect the communal interest of the people. Regional parties are constituted to promote and safeguard the interest of a community.
6)      State Autonomy: The states feel that they do not have adequate powers. Moreover central control is too much in the Indian governmental system. Hence, regional parties have been constituted to get more autonomy for the states.
6. Explain the concept of new economic policy of India and its opposition.
Ans. The New Economic policy involved the following major changes in policy.
a)      Trade Policy Reform;
b)      Industrial Policy Reform;
c)       Exchange Rate Reform;
d)      Capital Market Reform;
e)      Financial Reform.
But there are differences of opinion both at the international level and in India, with regard to impact of New Economic Policy and its usefulness. Critics opine that there has been (a) a cut in welfare measures (b) reduction in subsidies of goods of mass consumption (c) decline in real wages (d) there is an increase in the power of foreign investors and creditors. While a great deal of attention is paid to formulate rule for the expansion of global markets and capital flows, little attention is paid to objectives like labour standard, poverty reduction and human rights (e) it has greatly circumscribed the power of nation-state under pressure from multinational companies.

7. Explain the challenges of globalization in context to new economic policy.
Ans. Globalization is a process through which the world is becoming closer and distances less. As a result of this, national economics are diminishing and they are becoming part of the international economic system. As India has become a part of this process and is trying to adopt itself to their new reality. Major challenge before it is to reap its benefits and avoid its adverse effects. There is a number of serious issues which developed countries and imposing on developing countries through international financial and trade organizations like World Trade Organization (WT)). India is of the opinion that developing countries need to oppose these attempts. India has taken a number of initiatives at the international for a, to protect the interests of developing countries with regard to trade negotiation, subsidies and right and responsibilities of different countries.
8. Discuss the challenges posed by communalism in India relation to Ajodhya and Godhra.
Ans. In December 1992, the organizations supporting the construction of Ram Mandir in place of Babri Masjid had organized a Kar Seva. Lac of people reached Ajodhya and situation became very tense. The Supreme Court had ordered the State government to take care that the disputed site will not be endangered. However, on December 6, 1992 Babri Masjid was destroyed by Hindu activists.
      Muslims observe December 6 as “Black Day” when this historic mosque and monument was destroyed and the Hindu activists observe December 6 as the “Victory Day”.
      In February-March 2002, large scale violence took place against Muslims in Gujarat. Immediate cause of Gujarat riot was a bogey of a train that was coming from Ajodhya and was full of Kar Seva was set on fire at Godhra Station. In Godhra, the train burning which took place on February 27, 2002 killed 58 Hindu Kar Seva and the following Gujarat riots continued for almost a whole month. Official estimates given to Parliament on May, 2005 by UPA government of DR. Man Mahon Singh, based on Gujarat government statistics states: 790 Muslim and 254 Hindu died, 223 missing and 248 injured. However the National Human Rights Commission criticized the Gujarat government’s role in failing to control violence, provide relief to the victims and prosecute the perpetrators to this violence.
9. “A consensus appears to have emerged among the parties” – What are the elements of consensus?
Ans. (1) Agreement on new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most political parties are in support of the new economic policies.
          (2) Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward castes: Political parties have recognized that the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted.
          (3) Role of Regional Parties: Acceptance of the role of state level parties in grievance of the country. The distinction between state level and national level parties is fast becoming less important.

          (4) Pragmatic Considerations: Emphasis on pragmatic consideration rather than ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement. Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.