Tuesday, February 14, 2017

AHSEC - Class 11: Economics Syllabus

AHSEC – Class 11 Economics: Syllabus and Unit wise Distribution of Course contents
Unit No.




Unit – I
Unit – II
Unit – III
Unit – IV
Introduction to Economics
Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data
Statistical Tools and interpretation
Developing Projects in Economics

Unit – V
Unit – VI
Unit – VII
Unit – VIII
Development Policies and Experience ( 1947-90)
Economic Reforms since 1991
Current Challenges facing Indian Economy
Development experience of India – A
Comparison with neighbors.


In this course, the learners are expected to acquire skills in collection, organisation of quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to various, but simple, economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyses and interpret any economic information and draw appropriate inferences. In this process, the learners are also expected to understand the behaviour of various economic date.

AHSEC - Class 11: Commercial Mathematics and Statistics Selected Questions for Feb' 2017 Exam

Part 1 – 25 Marks Expected (Long Questions and Answers)
Part 2 – 55 Marks Expected (Practical Problems)
Part 3 – 20 Marks Expected (Multiple Choice and short answer type Questions)
Q.1. Define the term Statistics. What are its Characteristics? Mention its Functions and Limitations.
Ans: Statistics: The word Statistics seems to have been derived from the Latin word “status” or the Italian word Statista. All word means a political state. In early year “statistics” equipped a collection of facts about the people in the state for administration or political purpose.
A comprehensive definition was given by Prof. Horace Secrist, which is a follows:  “By Statistics we mean aggregates of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standards of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.”
Characteristics of Statistics:
(i) Statistics are aggregates of facts. Single and isolated figures are not statistics because they cannot be compared.
(ii) Statistics must be numerically expressed. Statistical methods are applicable only to those data which can be numerically expressed.
(iii) Statistics should be capable of comparison and connected to each other.
(iv) Statistics should be collected in a systematic manner.
(v) Statistics should be collected for a definite purpose: The purpose should be specific and well defined. 

Sunday, February 05, 2017

Concept of Management and Development of Management Thoughts

Management - Introduction
Management is the coordination of all resources through the process of planning, organizing, directing, staffing and controlling in order to attain stated objectives effectively and efficiently.  Effectively means doing the right task, completing activities and achieving goals and efficiently means to attain objectives with least amount of resources at a minimum cost. This process starts at the top and continues in more or less degree at every level of the organization.
According to Harold Koontz, “Management is an art of getting things done through others and with formally organised groups."
According to F.W. Taylor, “Management is an art of knowing what do you want to do and then seeing that is is done in the best and cheapest way.”
According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command to co-ordinate and control.
George R. Terry, “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performance t determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources,”
Thus management may be defined as a process including various activities like planning, organizing , directing, controlling  co-ordination etc in order to make optimum use of men machinery, materials and money by way of preparing plans, policies and purposes, for achieving organizational goals under healthy internal environment.
Nature or characteristics of Management:
On the basis of critical analysis of  various definitions of management, the main features of management may be stated as follows :